Skip to main content

Full text of "The Book Of Religion And Empire"

See other formats


TEXT FLY IN THE 
BOOK 



<OU_1 64682 



OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

Call No. ^ ?/ 4?^ x Jiccession No. 

Author 

Title 




This book should be returned on or before the date 
last marked below. 



THE BOOK OF 
RELIGION AND EMPIRE 



PUBLISHED FOR THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY AT 

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS (H. M. MCKECHNIE, Secretary) 

12 LIME GROVE, OXFORD ROAD, MANCHESTER 

LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO, 

LONDON : 39 PATERNOSTER Row 

NEW YORK : 55 FIFTH AVENUE 

BOMBAY : 8 HORNBY ROAD 
CALCUTTA : 6 OLD COURT HOUSE STREET 

MADRAS : 167 MOUNT ROAD 
BERNARD QUARITCH LIMITED 
ii GRAY STREET, NEW BOND STREET, LONDON, W. 



THE BOOK OF 
RELIGION AND EMPIRE 



A SEMI-OFFICIAL DEFENCE AND EXPOSITION OF 

ISLAM WRITTEN BY ORDER AT THE COURT AND 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF THE CALIPH MUTA- 

WAKKIL (A.D. 847-861) 



BY 

<ALI TABARI 



TRANSLATED WITH A CRITICAL APPARATUS FROM AN APPARENTLY 
UNIQUE MS. IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

BY 

A. MINGANA, D.D. 

OP THE MSS. DEPARTMENT OF THE LIBRARY, AND SPECIAL LECTURER IN 
ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER 



MANCHESTER: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONGMANS, GREEN & COMPANY 

LONDON, NEW YORK, TORONTO, BOMBAY, CALCUTTA, MADRAS 

LONDON: BERNARD QUARITCH LIMITED 

1922 



INTRODUCTION. 

I. 

THE present work may possibly attract the attention of 
some scholars and students of comparative religion. It is 
a semi-official defence of Islam written at the command, 
with the assistance, and in the court of the Caliph Muta- 
wakkil (A.D. 847-861) ; the adversaries more frequently at- 
tacked are the Christians, who, thanks to their numerical 
strength, to the vigilance of the East-Syrian Patriarchs 
residing in Baghdad, and to the influence of a successive 
series of court-physicians, were the strongest opponents 
of the State religion at the time of the 'Abbasid dynasty ; 
in the second rank come Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, and 
Parsees, who, however, are more severely handled. The 
work is also likely to throw great light on the religious 
tendencies of Muhammadanism at the time of its greatest 
expansion and orthodoxy. 

It is not our intention to give here a synopsis of the 
general plan adopted in the execution of the work, nor 
to express an opinion on its intrinsic merits and demerits. 1 
We leave the reader to draw his own conclusions on the 
subject ; but in order to help him in his task we have 

1 A short essay in this direction was published in J.R.A.S^ 1920, pp. 
481-488. In some respects it is the weightiest of all the works on Islam 
that we have read for a long time, and during the last seven years we have 
perused more than seven hundred Arabic MSS. on different subjects. The 
author has displayed a literary art which has certain merits of its own, 
and which, from many sentences such as "if the adversaries shout,' 1 
appears to have been dictated to him by a series of public discussions 
held in the court of Mutawakkil. 



vi INTRODUCTION 

ventured to add a few short notes to some statements 
which, to use a sentence of the author's, not two learned 
men can regard as irrefragable. 

The second half of the eighth and the first half of the 
ninth centuries were, owing to the somewhat tolerant 
attitude of the Caliphs of Baghdad, marked by the first 
serious shock of opinion between Christians and Muslims. 
It was at this time that, in answer to certain objections 
advanced by Christians, the ingenuity of the Muslim 
writers gathered from scattered materials and purely 
oral sources the weapons which in the same field of con- 
troversy would place them on even terms with their 
seemingly more favoured opponents. We do not believe 
that the imposing number of Muhammad's miracles and 
prophecies (with which we should compare Kur'an, xxix 
49 ; xiii. 27-30 ; xvii. 92-97) would have been so skilfully 
elaborated at so late a date as the eighth century, if 
their compilers had not been forced so to act by ready 
adversaries who had made the subject of thaumaturgy 
a special point in their polemics against them. We have 
here and there isolated cases of public discussions before 
this period. The earliest and the most important record 
seems to be the colloquy which took place in Syria be- 
tween the Arab generals and the Monophysite Patriarch 
of Antioch, John I., in the eighteenth year of the Hijrah 
Sunday, 9th May, A.D. 639). The Syriac text of this 
document has been published by F. Nau, 1 and we have 
given a summary of it in the Journal of the Manchester 
Egyptian and Oriental Society (1916, p. 35 seq.). On the 
other hand, we know nothing about the discussion 
between the Umayyad 'Abdul-Malik b. Marwan (A.D. 
692-705) and Ibrahim, son of Rahib (monk) Tabarani. 2 

* Journal Asiatique, 1915, 248. 

2 Mentioned by Steinschneider, Polem. u. Apolog. Liter. 1877, No. 
65, p. 82. 



INTRODUCTION vii 

The outcome of the discussion in the second half of 
the eighth century is known, on the Christian side, by 
the Syriac writings of Timothy, Patriarch of the East 
Syrian Church (A.D. 780-823). In one of his letters 1 he 
records, by way of question and answer, the gist of the 
public discussion that he had before the Caliph Mahdi, 
about A.D. 783. At the end of the same century Abu 
Nah of Anbar, the secretary of the Muslim Governor of 
Mosul, wrote a refutation of the Kur'an, which Ebedjesu 
of Nisibis 2 has registered in his Catalogue, compiled in 
A.D. 1298. Assemani mentions a work entitled Discussion 
between the monk Abu Karah and the Commander of the 
Faithful? and Steinschneider, 4 who has included it in his 
book as No. 64, believes that this Commander of the 
Faithful was the Caliph Ma'mun (A.D. 813-833). This 
treatise does not seem, however, to be of importance, 
and it is even possible that it consists of a record by an 
author of a later date of an event which had taken place 
several decades earlier ; and the same may be said of the 
above discussion between b. Marwan and Tabarani. 

During the reign of Ma'mun, in whose time the edict 
against the dogma of the eternity of the Kur'an was 
issued, the better known Apology of Christianity by Kindi 
saw the light. The exhaustive study of W. Muir 5 
renders it unnecessary for us to enter into detail con- 
cerning this work, but it would be useful here to remark 

1 I read it in a MS., cf. al-Machriq for May and June, J 921. 

2 Assemani, B. O. iii., i., p. 212. X / 
8 Ibid, iii., i., p. 609. 4 Polem. u. Apol Lit. jJ" 3, 

5 Apology of al-Kindy in Defence of Christianity, LQJ- |on. I read the 
Arabic text in the edition of the Nile Mission Press, rpi2. A recent 
reviewer in \hzjewish Quarterly Review has unsuccessfully tried to throw 
doubts on the authenticity of this book which from internal and external 
evidence is certainly one of the most genuine compositions that we possess 
in the literature of the 9th century. Cf. Casanova, Mahomet et la fin du 
e^ ii, Notes Compltmentaires. 



viii INTRODUCTION 

that the present Defence seems to be an attempt to refute 
lucubrations similar to those of Timothy or Kindi at an 
interval of some twenty-five to thirty years. The epithet 
" Garmecite," however, that the author applies to his 
adversary, points to a man living or born in the region 
of Mosul or that of the two Zabs, the word used by the 
author in this connection being Jurmukani (cf. p. 81). 

Facing the Muslim side, it is worth noticing that the 
author of the present Defence speaks of some polemical 
dissertations which in our days seem to be lost (p. 3). 
It would be interesting also to have more details about 
the pamphlet entitled Answer to Christians by 'Amr b. 
Bahr al-Jahidh, the celebrated Mu'tazili writer who died 
A.D. 869; it is recorded by Hajji Khalifah in his Biblio- 
graphical Dictionary, 1 and by Steinschneider ; 2 and we 
have no reliable information concerning the controversial 
dissertation of Abu 'Isa Muhammad al-Warrak, which 
occasioned an answer by the monophysite Yahya b. 'Adi 
of Takrlt, 3 who died in A.D. 974. Without dilating on 
the numerous but not very instructive publications of 
later generations we may, therefore, venture to assert 
that the present work, apart from its intrinsic value, is 
in order of date one of the most ancient. 

The historical environment which gave birth to the 
present Defence is not too complex. The period of re- 
ligious toleration referred to above was briskly changed 
by Muta\ ^kkil into an era of recrudescence of Islamic 
tendencies. This Caliph, whom Barhebraeus calls "a 
hater of ' eLristians," 4 ordered that all churches built 
since the commencement of Islam should be demolished, 



1 iii- 353- 

2 Ibid. No. 6 1, v. 73. 

) 8 Ibid. pp. 128 und 146. See the recent work of A. Perier, Yahia b. 
Adi, Petits traitts apologttiques (1920). 
4 Chron. Syr. p. 155 (edit. Bedjan). 



INTRODUCTION ix 

and forbade the employment of Christians in Government 
offices and the display of crosses on Palm Sunday; he 
also gave orders that wooden figures of demons should 
be fixed on their doors, that they should wear yellow 
cowls, and a zonarion round the waist, that they should 
ride saddles with wooden stirrups with two globes 
behind the saddle, that the men's clothes should have 
inserted a couple of patches of colour different from that 
of the clothes themselves, each patch to be four inches 
wide, and the two patches were also to be of different 
colour. Any Christian woman who went out of doors 
was to wear a yellow tunic without band. 1 Under these 
circumstances, it is highly creditable to the author not 
to have employed a stringent style in his dealings 
with the " members of the protected cults 7 ' (dhimmis: 
said mostly of Jews and Christians). On the other hand, 
his propensity to flattery is explicable by the pride of 
Mutawakkil, who was pleased to be described as " the 
shadow of God spread between Him and His creation/' 2 
or "the rope extended between God and His servants." 3 
The promulgation of the edict of the above persecu- 
tion is ascribed by Tabari to 235/849. From the general 
tenour of the present Defence it is clear, however, that 
either the persecution had not yet begun when the work 
was written, or that the work was edited some years 
after the edict of the persecution was issued, i.e. at a 
time when, owing to the unpopularity of its enactments, 
or to the changed attitude of the Caliph himself, it had 
reached the stage of a slow and natural death. The first 
hypothesis seems to be irreconcilable with the author's 
statement on p. 138, and the second would require, as 

1 Tabari, 3, 3, 1387 seq., analysed in J. Zaydan's Ummayyads and 
Abbasids (translated by D. S. Margoliouth), p. 169. 

2 Mas'udi, vii. 278-279 (B. de Meynard). 8 Tabari 3, 3, 1387. 



x INTRODUCTION 

events moved in the palaces of the Caliphs, 1 a year not 
far remote from A.D. 855, or six years after the promul- 
gation of the edict of the persecution. This date has the 
advantage of harmonising with the author's statement on 
p. 138. 

II. 

Since this Defence represents the first published work 
of 'AH Tabari, it will be useful to gather all the available 
information concerning his life and his works. Unfor- 
tunately, historical references to him found in writers of 
later date are scanty and confused. The very surname 
of his father, the Syriac vocable Rabban, has been read 
Zain, Zail, Rain, etc., by many historians, and this mis- 
take, which can easily be accounted for by the use of 
early and undotted Arabic letters on the part of Muslim 
writers, who hardly knew any other Semitic language 
besides Arabic, has been repeated by some well-known 
Arabists, in spite of the clear explanation given to it by 
the author himself in his medical work entitled Kun- 
nash. This last Syriac word, or its Arabic equivalent 
Jami\ was adopted by many Christian and Muslim physi- 
cians as constituting the best title to be given to their 
"complete " repertory of Graeco-Oriental physiology and 
therapeutics or general pathology. Such is the title of 
two works by John b. Serapion, one by George b. Bokhti- 
sho', one by the priest Aaron, one by Isaac b. Hunain, 
one by Sahir, one by Razi, one by Theodore, etc. 2 

The mention made of Tabari by the Islamic authori- 
ties may be summarised as follows : 

1 The best work on the life in the palaces of the Caliphs is Miska- 
waihi's Tajarib (or " Experiences of Nations "), translated by D. S. Margo- 
liouth in 1921 (Oxford, vols. i.-iv.). 

2 See Fihrist) pp. 296-303. 



INTRODUCTION xi 

1. The General Historians. The better known com- 
patriot of our Tabari, i.e. the famous historian Muham- 
mad Tabari, mentions the author four times, in his 
Annales, under the name : 'Ali b. Rabban, the Christian 
writer (see 3, 2, 1276-1277; ibid. 1283; ibid. 1293, edit. 
De Goeje), all in connection with Maziar of Tabaristan ; 
and Mas'udi in his Muruj (viii. 326, edit. B. de Meynard) 
gives a quotation from him describing a bird called 
Klkam. 

2. Fihrist (Fliigel, p. 296). " Ali b. Zail, 1 [with a Lam] 
Abul-Hasan 'Ali b. Sahl at-Tabari. He wrote to Maziar 
b. Karan. When he became Muslim at the hands of 
Mu'tasim, the latter drew him near to himself, and his 
merits became known in the Court. Then Mutawakkil 
bestowed honour upon him and made him of the number 
of his table-guests. He was a literary man and his books 
are : " Paradise of Medicine ; Gift to the Kings ; The Kun- 
ndsh ; Utility of Food \ Drink, and Medicinal Herbs" The 
author of the Fihrist, who was writing about 120 years 
after the death of Tabari, seems to have distinguished him 
from 'Ali b. Rain, " the Christian " whom he mentions on 
p. 316 as author of a book on Literature and Proverbs 
according to Persians, Greeks, and Arabs. In reality this 
'Ali appears to be identical with the author of this 
Defence. Further, is not the Kunnash the same work as 
that entitled Paradise of Medicine ? We shall presently 
see that this book is preserved in some public libraries as 
having both titles. The British Museum MS. 2 expressly 
states, "This is the index of the chapters of the Kunnash 
of 'Ali b. Rabban, which is entitled Paradise of Medicine" 

3. Ibn al-Kifti (edit. Lippert, 1913, p. 231). "'AH b. 

1 Possibly an error for RabL Cf. the quotation from b. abi Usaibi'ah 
and b. al-Kifti given below. 

2 Cod. CCCCXLV. p. 218, in Rieu's catalogue. 



xii INTRODUCTION 

Zain l at-Tabari, abul-Hasan, the physician. He excelled 
in the medical science, and was at the service of the 
governors of Tabaristan. He studied philosophy and 
devoted himself to natural science. After an insurrection 
which took place in Tabaristan he went to Ray, where 
he became tutor to Muhammad b. Zakaria' ar-Razi, who 
learned much from him. Thence he repaired to Samarra 
where he settled and wrote his Kunnash entitled Para- 
disc of Medicine. . . . He is mentioned by Muhammad b. 
Ishak an-Nadim in his book, in which he says : 'Abul- 
Hasan 'Ali b. Zain, who is b. Sahl at-Tabari. Zain is the 
name of Sahl, because he was a Rabbi to the Jews." 
This last information is erroneous, because the author of 
the Fihrist clearly states that the father of Tabari was a 
Christian (cf. here pp. 19, 50) ; further, the reading of 
" Zain " instead of " Rabban " in this quotation is evi- 
dently an error of the copyist, because it is the word 
"Rabban" and not "Zain" which means Rabbi. 

4. Ibn Abi Usaibi'ah (edit, of the press of Wahab, 1882, 
P- 309). "Ibn Rabban at-Tabari, who is abul-Hasan, 'Ali 
b. Sahl, b. Rabban at-Tabari. Ibn Nadim of Baghdad 
says (that his name was) Rabl, with a Lam, and relates 
about him as follows : He was the writer of Maziar b. 
Karan; when he became Muslim at the hands of Mu'tasim, 
the latter drew him near to himself, and his merits be- 
came known in the Court. Then the Caliph Mutawakkil 
made him of the number of his table-guests. He was a 
literary man and he instructed Razi in the medical pro- 
fession. He was born and brought up in Tabaristan. 
Among his sayings is the following : ' An ignorant 
physician is liable to death/ Ibn Rabban at-Tabari has 
among other books : Paradise of Medicine . . . ; Gentleness 

1 This word is rightly corrected into Rabban in the edition of Cairo, 
A.H. 1326. See pp. 128 and 155. 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

of Life ; Gift to the Kings ; The Kunnash ; Utility of Food 
and Drink and Medicinal Herbs; Preservation of Health ; 
Enchantment ; Scarification ; Preparation of Food" 

5. Yakut reports in his geographical dictionary (edit. 
Wtistenfeld, ii. 608) : " Something like the above narra- 
tion has been recorded by 'Ali b. Zain at-Tabari, the 
writer of Maziar. He had acquired medicine, and has 
works on many subjects." We consulted Yakut's 
Dictionary of Learned Men } recently edited by D. S. 
Margoliouth, but were unable to find in it any reference 
to our author ; nor is there any mention of him in Sam- 
'ani's Ansab, an introduction to which. was written in 
1912 by the same scholar. 

6. Ibn Khallikan (life, 717, 8, p. 75 of Wustenfeld's 
edit.) writes about Razi the celebrated physician: "He 
studied medicine under the physician abul-Hasan *Ali b. 
Zain at-Tabari, who has well-known works, such as the 
Paradise of Medicine. He was first a Christian, then he 
became a Muslim." 

7. Far more important is the following historical 
notice transmitted by the author himself in his work 
Paradise of Medicine 1 above mentioned : "My father was 
one of the writers of the town of Merw, and one of the 
most esteemed and learned men in it. He had a re- 
markable zeal for the acquisition of piety and the acquain- 
tanceship of those who excelled in it. He was a constant 
reader of books of medicine and philosophy, and he pre- 
ferred medicine to the profession of his fathers. His 
aim in it was not vainglory nor money, but esteem and 
consideration. He was for that surnamed Rabban } which 
means ' our master ' and 4 our teacher/ " 

iCod. CCCCXLV. of the British Museum^ p. 217 (Rieu). The work is 
also found in Cod. 6257 of Berlin^ v. p. 513 (Ahlwardt), and in Cod. 1910 
of Gotha iii. p. 456 (Pertsch). Cf. also Cod. DLXVII. of Oxford, p. 135 
(Uri). 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

8. In the MS. containing the present Defence the first 
leaf, which had begun to fade, has been transcribed afresh 
by a sixteenth century hand with the following historical 
note: " This (MS.) has been transcribed from the auto- 
graph of the author. 4 Ali b. Zain, the writer of this book 
may God have mercy on him says, 'My father was 
writer to Maziar, the master of Tabaristan/ When 
Mu'tasim took Maziar at the hand of 'Abdallah b. Tahir, 
('AH) asked for safety, and then he became one of the 
table-guests of the Caliph Mutawakkil 'ala Allah, and 
beatitude was ascribed to him. He became an eminent 
scholar, a traditionist, and a man of many works. The 
book has been transcribed from the autograph of its 
author, which fact will also be mentioned at the end of 
the work. It is an excellent book, the merit of which is 
known only by the man who studies it with care." 

In addition to all these references it should be noted 
that the medical works of Tabari are frequently quoted 
or referred to in books of a later date, under the name 
44 Tabari." See Badr ad-Din Kalanisi's Karabadln (MS. 
435 in the John Rylands Library; passim) and Nafis 
Kirmani's Commentary on Najib ad-Dm Samarkandi's 
Asbab wa 'Alamdt, where he is sometimes given his full 
name: 4 Ali b. Zain Tabari (see fol. 402*, MS. 221 of the 
John Rylands Library). 

Finally we should record the fact that at the bottom 
of the first page the titles of the following three chapters 
of a work by the author are transcribed apparently from 
an autograph : on the three denominations, the Melchites, 
the Jacobites, and the Nestorians (p. 1 10) ; on the sen- 
tences differently worded by the Apostles (p. 126); on 
the ambiguous letters wherewith they have argued in 
favour of their laws (p. 131). The work alluded to seems 
to have been the Book of Replies to Christians mentioned 
on pp. 101 and 107. 



INTRODUCTION xv 

These are the original notices about the author, who 
at the beginning of his Defence calls himself "freedman " 
of the Caliph Mutawakkil This might more appro- 
priately be referred to Mu'tasim (A.D. 833-841), in whose 
time Maziar b. Jaran b. Wandahormiz of Tabaristan 
was finally defeated by 'Abdallah b. Tahir, 1 and who, ac- 
cording to Barhebraeus, freed at his death-bed eight 
thousand slaves bought with his money. 2 

That the writer was an eminent physician and moralist 
is established by the above quotations. He was also the 
nephew of the Syrian doctor, abu Zakkar Yahya b. 
Nu'man, whom he mentions by name, and to whom he 
attributes a polemical work lost in our days. 3 If abu 
Zakkar is the same man as Zakariya' mentioned by Bar 
Bahlul in his Syriac lexicon and identified by some 
critics with abu Yahya al-Marwazi an identification 
which to us seems very doubtful the year of his death 
should be ascribed to the second quarter of the first half 
of the ninth century, because the author of this Defence 
speaks of him in terms which suggest that he had lived 
shortly before the final edition of his book. Confusion 
between physicians and moralists of the ninth century is 
frequent in the works of a later date, and the time has 
not yet come to speak of them in an irrefragable manner. 
If we were allowed to add a remark to the identification 
of Zakariya' with abu Yahya al-Marwazi, 4 we should say 
that an identification with abu Zakariya Yahya b. Masu- 
waih, 5 the physician of the Caliphs Ma'mun, Mu'tasim, 
Wathik, and Mutawakkil, would be more in harmony 
with the general course of events. On the one hand, the 
name given to him by the author does not conflict with 

lr rabari, 3, 2, 1268 seq. 2 Chron. Syr. p. 153 (Bedjan). 

8 See p. 147. 4 Cf. Fihrist) p. 263, and Usaibi'ah i. pp. 234-235. 

5 Cf. Fihrist, pp. 295-296, and Steinschneider in Z D M G, 1893, xlvii. 
PP- 351-354- 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

this surmise, and on the other hand, the year of his death 
commonly believed to have been A.D. 854-855 would be in 
consonance with the text of our Defence, written certainly 
between 847 and 86 1, and probably in 855. 



III. 

THE manuscript which contains the text of this Defence 
is, so far as we are aware, unique. It is numbered 631 in 
the Crawford collection of the John Rylands Library, 
measures 210 x 127 mm. and consists of 73 leaves of 
paper, with 19 lines to the page. The first leaf, which, 
as stated above, had begun to fade, has been written 
afresh by a sixteenth-century hand. If the scribe's state- 
ment is correct and we have no reason to question it 
the MS. is a transcript from the author's autograph. 
This appears in the note translated above, which refers 
us to the colophon at the end of the MS. Unfortunately, 
this colophon cannot be deciphered in its totality. The 
sentences which can be read with safety may be trans- 
lated as follows : 

11 The book was finished and glory and praise be to 
God on the morning of Friday 4 Muharram of the year 
six hundred and sixteen may God make good its be- 
ginning ! Has copied it for himself the servant soliciting 
the mercy and the forgiveness of the Almighty God : 
'Abdul-Hamid b. Husain b. Bashik, who thanks the 
Almighty God for His favours and blesses His Prophet, 
our Master Muhammad, with his family and companions, 
and gives them peace for ever." 

The date A.H. 616 (A.D. 1219) is also found on the first 
page, written by the sixteenth-century hand, while at the 
bottom of the last page the following words are read in 
a thirteenth-century hand : " I said This is the last work 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

copied by Jamal ud-Din, who died shortly after he had 
finished it." Can this Jamal ud-Din be identified with the 
above ' Abdul-Hamid ? 

On folios i a, igb, and sgb, marginal notes dated 

. ^ bear the name of an owner, a certain Musa 
1149/1736 

al-Maulawi. It is evidently this man who has added a 
few . philological and historical notes on the narrow 
margins of the book, and vocalised some difficult words. 
These stray notes are the only data that we possess as to 
the provenance of the MS., 1 which was apparently written 
in Baghdad forty years before its sack by the hordes of 
Hulaku. From the footnotes of pp. 97, 106, 131, etc., and 
from some passages of the text, it would appear that the 
MS. is a transcript from a first or rough draft made by the 
author, but it is possible to admit that some of these 
passages were marginal notes which have been misplaced 
by the copyist 

The translation given in the present volume preserves 
the Arabic colouring of the original, but contains a few 
explanatory words not found in the text, and safeguards 
the interests of a general reader not necessarily an 
Arabist. We have inserted some foot-notes to elucidate 
difficult points, and have compared the historical and 
traditional sayings reported by the author with the 
following authorities : 

Buk. The Sakth of Bukhari ; edition of Cairo, A.H. 
* ' 

1313, in nine volumes. 

Hish. Ibn Hisham's Life of the Prophet; edition of 
Cairo, A.H. 1332, by Tahtawi, in three 
volumes. 



1 The words " In Egypt " are also clearly read at the top of the title- 
page after a truncated line. 

6 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

I.S. The Tabakat of Ibn Sa'd, edited at Leyden under 

the direction of E. Sachau, in seven volumes. 
Musi. The Sahlh of Muslim; edition of Cairo, A.H. 

1327, in two volumes. 
Musn. Musnad of Ahmad b. Hanbal ; edition of Cairo, 

A.H. 1313, in six volumes. 
Tab. The Annals of Tabari; edited at Leyden under 

the direction of De Goeje, in fifteen volumes. 
Taj. Taj al-Arus. Arabic dictionary, edition of Cairo, 

in ten volumes. 

Had we extended our comparisons to all the tradi- 
tional books, we should have swollen the foot-notes 
without appreciable advantage. 

Other historians and theologians are quoted without 
abbreviations and with full reference to the edition which 
we have used. 

It must not be inferred that our comparative apparatus 
implies that the same tradition is registered verbatim by 
the writers referred to in the foot-note. It is a well-known 
fact that an identical tradition is sometimes so confusedly 
worded by the authors of the ninth century that the 
readers can scarcely recognise its extent and purpose, and 
more especially the occasions and circumstances which 
gave birth to it. As to the meagre historical value of all 
this tardy Hadith, the reader should consult the recent 
and well-known publications of Professors Margoliouth, 
Goldziher, Wensinck, Snouck Hurgronje and Lammens, 
in the light of which many lucubrations by ancient critics 
have become antiquated. 

With regard to the Biblical quotations found in the 
book, since the author is mostly dependent only on the 
Syriac Version, we have collated his translation with the 
Peshitta. This collation is complete so far as the Penta- 
teuch is concerned, but for the rest of the sacred Books 



INTRODUCTION xix 

a note has been added only in case of a mistranslation or 
misquotation. 1 

About the author's sources nothing can be stated 
with any degree of certitude. On the one hand, the 
historical details in the section dealing with the Prophet 
and the Orthodox Caliphs, are often preceded by the 
formulae "It has come to our knowledge/* "It has been 
related," which may equally point to oral traditions and 
to written sources. On the other hand, there is no 
reason for denying the probability that Tabari was in 
the privileged position of having ready access to the 
archives and the library of the Court in which, it is to be 
presumed, the few Islamic biographical works (most of 
which are now lost) preceding the present Defence, were 
to be found. On p. 19 the author is speaking of works 
written from the time of the appearance of Islam down 
to his own day, and now and then he endeavours to 
furnish important details of circumstantial evidences ; so 
on p. 34 he states, in connection with a miracle of the 
Prophet, that the descendants of the man to whom the 
wolf spoke, were in his own time known by the epithet 
"the children of the man to whom the wolf spoke. " 

Concerning a Biblical Version quoted by the author 
on pp. 78, 95, 98, and attributed by him to a certain Marcus 
the tarjaman, we could find no definite traces. From the 
Fihrist (pp. 23-24) we know that the Old and New Testa- 
ments were translated into Arabic long before the tenth 
Christian century, but we have no reason to identify 
the problematic Marcus Ya'Kubi called Badawi, therein 
mentioned as author of an Arabic book, with Marcus the 
tarjaman spoken of in the present Defence. On p. 306 

1 The reader will doubtless notice the differences in the numbers of the 
chapters of the Bible used by the author. The numbers of the chapters 
of his Bible are those formerly in use in the East Syrian (Nestorian) 
Church. 



xx INTRODUCTION 

the Fihrist mentions an earlier but still more problematic 
Marcus. 

On the authority of Cod. Vat. Arab. 13, of the end of 
the eighth century, we may state that an Arabic Version 
of the Gospels was in existence about A.D. 750 (cf. Scholz's 
Krit. Reis. 118 seq., and Guidi's Ev. p. 8). Further, the 
historian Michael the Syrian (edit. Chabot ii. p. 431) 
attributes an Arabic translation of the Gospels to the 
Christian Arabs assembled at the above public discussion 
which took place in Syria in A.D. 639. This, if we 
mistake not, is the oldest date to which any Christian 
historian has ascribed the existence of an Arabic Version 
of the Gospels, but great importance should not be at- 
tached to a mere historical tradition without subsequent 
data of a concrete and positive order. 1 

We believe that the problem of " Marcus, the trans- 
lator," may be satisfactorily solved in the following 
manner : in the still unpublished repertory of the East 
Syrian exegesis, entitled Gannath Bussame? a tradition 
is registered to the effect that the Hebrew text of the 
Old Testament was translated into the Syriac Peshitta 
of our days by the disciple Mark, probably Mark the 
evangelist himself. There is no necessity, therefore, to 
resort to the hypothesis that the author was dependent 
in his scriptural quotations upon a pre-existent Arabic 
Version of the Bible. The Syriac statement of the 
Gannath may be translated as follows : 

"Some people report that Mark himself translated 
the Old Testament from Hebrew into Syriac, and that 

1 No account has been taken above of the tradition recorded by some 
writers that Khadijah's relative, Warakah, had translated the Gospels into 
Arabic in the time of the Prophet. We have likewise omitted as valueless 
some other traditions transmitted in the late hadith, the authors of which 
probably possessed less information than we do on the subject. 

2 Page 260 of Syr. MS. 41 of the John Rylands Library. 



INTRODUCTION xxi 

he presented his translation to James, the brother of 
our Lord, and to the Apostles, who appended their 
approbation to it and gave it to the inhabitants of 
Syria." 

The above tradition had evidently gained an unchal- 
lenged credit in the Christian and Muslim circles of the 
middle of the ninth century. 

It is a pleasing duty to express here my sincerest 
thanks to my colleague, Dr. H. Guppy, the chief librarian 
of the John Rylands Library, for many good suggestions 
and for his unfailing kindness in providing the necessary 
research material to which all the merits of the present 
work are to be attributed ; and to my friend, Prof. D. S. 
Margoliouth of Oxford for help in the decipherment of 
some Arabic words which had almost completely faded 
away. 

JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY, 
27 tk June, 1922. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



I. PROLOGUE i 

II. 
On the Different Forms of Stories and Common Agreements . . 6 

III. 
Directions for the Verification of Stories 10 

IV CHAPTER I. 
The Prophet Called to the Unity of God, and to the same object 

as that included in the Faith of Abraham and all the Prophets . 20 

V. CHAPTER II. 
On the Merit of his Prescriptions and his Laws .... 23 

VI. CHAPTER III. 
The Miracles of the Prophet which have been Denied and 

Rejected by the People of the Book 30 

VII. CHAPTER IV. 
The Prophet Foretold Events Unknown to him, which were Realised 

in his Days 37 

VIII. CHAPTER V. 
The Prophecies of the Prophet which were Realised after his Death . 40 

IX. CHAPTER VI. 

The Prophet was an Unlettered Man, and the Book which God 
brought down to him and which He made him Recite is a Sign 
of Prophetic Office 50 

X. CHAPTER VII. 
The Victory of the Prophet is a Mark of Prophetic Office . . 57 

XLCHAPTER VIII. 
p Those who Called to his Religion and Witnessed the Truth of his 

Cause were most Honest and Righteous Men . . . .61 

xxii 



CONTENTS xxiii 

PAGE 

XII. 
Asceticism of Abu Bakr 61 

XIII. 
Asceticism of 'Umar Ibnul-Khattab 65 

XIV. 
Asceticism of Ali ibn Abu Talib 69 

XV. 
Asceticism of 'Umar ibn 'Abdul-'Aziz, and of 'Abdallah ibn 'Umar 

Ibnul-Khattab, and of some other Pious Muslims ... 70 

XVI. CHAPTER IX. 

If the Prophet had not Appeared, the Prophecies of the Prophets 
about Ishmael and about the Prophet who is the Last of the 
Prophets, would have necessarily become without object . . 77 

XVII. CHAPTER X. 
The Prophecies of the Prophets about the Prophet . . . .85 

XVIII. 
The Prophecies of David about the Prophet .... 88 

XIX. 

The Prophecies of Isaiah about the Prophet 93 

XX. 

The Prophecy of the Piophet Hosea about the Prophet . . . 117 

XXI. 

The Prophecy of the Prophet Micah about the Prophet. . .118 

XXII. 
The Prophecy of the Prophet Habakkuk about the Prophet . .119 

XXIII. 
The Prophecy of the Prophet Zephaniah about the Prophet . . 121 

XXIV. 
The Prophecy of the Prophet Zechariah about the Prophet, which 

corroborates the Prophecy of Zephaniah 123 

XXV. 
The Prophecy of the Prophet Jeremiah about the Prophet . .124 

XXVI. 

The Prophecy of the Prophet Ezekiel about the Prophet. . .128 
Corollary . 129 



xxiv CONTENTS 

PAGE 

XXVI I. 
The Prophecy of the Prophet Daniel about the Prophet . .133 

XXVIII. 
The Prophecy of the Christ about the Prophet . . . .140 

XXIX. 

The Answer to those who have said that the " Refugees " and the 

" Helpers " Embraced the Faith without any Sign . . .147 

XXX. 

The Answer to those who have Blamed Islam in one of its Practices 

or in one of its Prescriptions 153 

XXXI. 

The Answer to those who reprobate the fact that the Prophet Con- 
tradicted Moses and Christ in Changing the Rules of the 
Torah and the Gospel 158 

XXXII. 
The Answer to those who have pretended that no one but the Christ 

mentioned the Resurrection 161 

XXXIII. 
Conclusion ........... 162 

Index 171 



I. 

PROLOGUE. 

IN THE NAME OF GOD THE COMPASSIONATE AND THE 
MERCIFUL WHOSE ASSISTANCE WE SOLICIT. 

SAYS 4 Ali son of Rabban Tabari, the freedman of the 
Commander of the Faithful: Praise be to God for the 
religion of Islam which whoso embraces shall be success- 
ful, whoso maintains shall be rightly guided, whoso up- 
holds shall be saved, and whoso impugns shall perish. 
It is by it that the Creator has been made known ; it is 
for it that nations are craving and souls have longed ; it 
is by it that hope is fulfilled sooner or later, because it 
is the living light and the crossing to the eternal abode of 
perfect happiness in which there is no grief nor illusion. 
God, the Most High, has made us of the number of the 
people of the Sunnah, and has caused us to avoid false- 
hood and the injuries it brings to its adherents ; God is 
indeed to be praised and blessed, and there is no end to 
His Kingdom, and nobody can change His words. He 
is the Benefactor and the Wise who has revealed the 
truth and enlightened it, and has created His servants, 
sent His Apostle, His Beloved, and His Friend, to those 
who were in doubt about Him, calling them to the eternal 
victory and the shining light. 

When the hour came and was near, God, the Most 
High, sent our prophet, Muhammad may God bless 
and save him to all creatures, as preacher, warner, and 
illuminating lamp. 1 He proclaimed the order of his Lord, 
and overawed his enemies into respect and fear by per- 
suasion and dissuasion, and by imparting to them the 

1 Kur. xxxiii. 45. 
I 



2 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

knowledge of a thorough reformation. He exhorted to 
heaven and its beatitude, and prevented from being un- 
mindful of hell and its fire. He conveyed on the part of 
God the revelation which the angel Gabriel communicated 
to him, and to which falsehood shall not come from before 
it nor from behind it. 1 He did not set aside any truth 
that the prophets had brought forth before him, but con- 
firmed and corroborated it, and ordered belief in them 
and praises in favour of the first and the last of them. 

God said in His perspicuous book : "Say, We believe 
in God, and what has been revealed to us, and what has 
been revealed to Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and 
Jacob, and the Tribes, and what was brought to Moses, 
and Jesus, and what was brought unto the Prophets 
from their Lord; we will not distinguish between any 
one of them, and unto Him are we resigned." a 

And He said: "The Apostle believed in what has 
been sent down to him from his Lord, and the believers 
all believed on God and His angels, and His Books, and 
His Apostles. We make no difference between any of 
His Apostles' 1 and the rest of the verse. 3 And about 
those who associate gods with God, or give him a com- 
panion, He said : 

11 Say, He is God alone, God the Eternal ; He begets 
not, and is not begotten, nor is there like unto Him any- 
one/' 4 And He said : 

11 Say, O ye people of the Book, come to a word laid 
down plainly between us and you, that we will not serve 
other than God, nor associate aught with Him, nor take 
each other for lords rather than God. But if they turn 
back then say, Bear witness that we are resigned." 6 And 
He said : 

"Is he who has laid down his foundation upon the 
fear of God and His goodwill better, or he who has laid 

a Kur. xli. 42, etc. 2 Kur. ii. 130. 

3 Kur. ii. 285. 4 Kur. cxii. 1-4. 

5 Kur. iii. 57. 



PROLOGUE 3 

his foundation upon a crumbling wall of sand, which 
crumbles away with him into the fire of hell ? But God 
guides not a people who do wrong." l 

It is to these points that his proclamations were 
directed, it is on them that he founded the edifice of his 
call, and it is with them that he started the legislation of 
his religion and the stipulations of his truth which the 
polytheists among the Arabs, and the holders of the 
inspired Book have denied. They have hidden his name 
and changed his portrait found in the Books of their 
prophets peace be with them. 2 I shall demonstrate this, 
disclose its secret, and withdraw the veil from it, in order 
that the reader may see it clearly and increase his con- 
viction and his joy in the religion of Islam. In that I 
shall tread a path more direct and advantageous than 
that opened by some other writers of books on this 
subject. Some of them have shortened, curtailed, and 
contracted their argument, and have not explained it 
satisfactorily ; some of them have argued in poetry against 
the People of the Book } and in ignorance of their Books ; 
and some of them have crammed the two faces of their 
books with addresses to Muslims rather than polytheists, 
then have put forth their proofs in a most elaborate and 
difficult discourse. The adversary would be right if he 
wished to say that these writers resembled a collector of 
firewood by night, who indiscriminately picks up small 
and big pieces, or a person carried away in a torrent, 
who suddenly shouts out unpleasant or refined phrases ; 
and that that with which they argued was not to de- 
monstrate but to conceal, not to enlighten but to blind, 
not to lessen difficulty but to increase it. He who writes 
a book on this high, illuminating and enlightening subject 
which involves a general utility to adherents to all re- 
ligions, has to make it comprehensible and easy ; has to 

1 Kur. ix. no. 

2 Cf. Kur. vii. 1 56, and I. S. i. ii. 89, and i. i. 123 and passim in Buk. 
Musi. Hish. 



4 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

discuss and compete with his adversary, and not to bully 
and offend him ; he is to be intelligible, and not obscure ; 
courteous, and not abusive ; he is to use indulgence, to 
embellish [the tenor of his speech] l by making it lucid, 
and to bring forth proofs and replies which, when ad- 
dressed [to the adversary], * should cause him to abandon 
his religious claim and his faith. If he does that to him, 
he will ride on him, hit him with his arrow, and lead him 
with his bridle. 

I have aimed at this by the help of the Most High 
God, and have made the meanings of my sentences easy, 
in order that the reader may understand them, and not 
be in doubt. I did not leave the members of the pro- 
tected cults any argument, any difficult question, any 
contentious point, that I have not mentioned and then 
refuted and solved, by the succour and assistance of 
God, and by the blessing of His Caliph, the Imam Ja'far 
al-Mutawakkil 'ala-Allah, Commander of the Faithful 
may God prolong his life who guided me and made me 
profit by words heard from him. He is in earnest and 
eager that such books should be spread and perpetuated 
in order to strengthen the motives of credibility of the 
Faith, to make its proofs triumph, and to convince of his 
merit therein those who ignore it, and do not recognise 
how God has singled out Islam and its followers in 
his time and renewed for them His benefits; nor how, 
through the gentleness of his administration, He has 
made Himself felt by them, in multiplying, increasing, 
and honouring them. 

I have found that people who have contradicted Islam, 
have done so for four reasons : firstly, because of doubts 
about the history of the Prophet may God bless and 
save him ; secondly, because of disdain and egregious 
insolence; thirdly, because of tradition and custom; 
fourthly, because of folly and stupidity. By my life, had 

1 The words between brackets have completely disappeared from the 
text and have only been guessed. 



PROLOGUE 5 

they discerned and grasped the truth of that history, 
they would not have rejected it. And since they have 
sought what is with God, by contradicting the com- 
mand of God, we must needs decide to prove this history 
to them, expel doubt from them, and explain to them 
the origins and the subdivisions of stories, their causes 
and their courses, and the way to discern their veracity 
from their falsehood, and the reasons through which and 
for which people have accepted their prophets and 
responded to their missionaries. We shall next com- 
pare our story with theirs, the men who transmitted 
ours to us with those who handed down theirs to them ; 
if the proofs that we have for believing in our Prophet 
are the same as those they possess for believing in theirs, 
they will have no excuse before God and before their 
own conscience for disbelieving in our Prophet, though 
believing in theirs, because if two opponents bring forth 
the same evidence to establish certain claim, they have 
both the same right to it, and what is due to one must 
necessarily be due to the other. 



II. 

ON THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF STORIES AND COMMON 

AGREEMENTS. 

EVERY story is of two kinds ; it is either true or false. It 
has, also, three tenses; it is either past, or present, or 
future. Certain stories may be sometimes true and 
sometimes false; as if you would say: "Such and such 
a man came or went ; " this may be true, and may also 
be false. Some stories are true at all times, past and 
future, gone or to come, because they are of the domain 
of the clear, universal, and common fact ; as if one would 
say, " The firmament has finished its diurnal rotation, or 
it will finish it to-morrow ;" or if somebody says: "The 
sun rose yesterday, or will rise next year ; " or if he says : 
"The majority of the quadrupeds give milk in bringing 
forth;" or, "The majority of the birds lay after they 
have been covered, and hatch when they have laid. n 
These and similar examples constitute a fact, true in its 
totality, at all times, and are of the category of the first 
and commonest agreement. 

Some stories are wholly false, at all times, past or 
future, as if one would say: "This has more light than 
the sun, and is sweeter than honey ; This horse is swifter 
than lightning, or more nimble than a tick ; " or if he 
says : " All people gathered together so that none was 
left ; " or, " Such and such a man is the best of men, and 
is more learned than all of them ; has a precious object 
worth everything ; his country is the most fertile of all 
the countries created by God." This and similar kinds 
of speech are wholly false, but they are used by the 
majority of mankind in their figurative style, and are not 
considered as wrong. 

(6) 



STORIES AND COMMON AGREEMENTS 7 

After this first and commonest agreement that I have 
mentioned, there is a second common agreement which 
involves less universality and generality; such is the 
story of Adam and Eve, and of their being the parents 
of mankind. This is true for us in an indubitable manner, 
because of the credence attributed to it by the majority 
of mankind, and of the testimony borne by prophets to 
its truth ; but it is considered as lie and falsehood by 
many people, such as the Indians, the Sabeans, and the 
like. 

After this second common agreement, there is a third 
common agreement which involves less generality and 
universality; such is the story of the Greeks, the In- 
dians, and the Chinese; because although most people 
who narrate it are from the low and common class, yet it 
is true and indubitable, because of the constant agree- 
ment and the numerous testimonies that it possesses. 

After this third common agreement, there is a fourth 
one which involves less generality and universality ; such 
is the story of the appearance of Alexander, of the 
Tababi'ah, and of the King Jam, and the like; it is ac- 
cepted as true, because of the great number of people 
who believe in it ; but people who believe in the story 
of the above-mentioned countries, are more numerous 
than those who believe in the story of the Tababi'ah and 
Alexander. 

A fifth common agreement is transmitted to one 
another by people who adhere to it from a long period, 
like the story of Buddhists, Zindlks, 1 and Magians ; it is 
true and indubitable to them, but it is an unmistakable 
falsity to us ; it began with juggleries and quibbles ; then 
through tradition and heredity, habit and custom, it be- 
came to them a religion. 

That it is a characteristic note of stories to lay easily 
hold upon mind and imagination is true and undeniable. 
There are indeed stories which by their queerness please 

1 Manichaeans, Atheists. 



8 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

the hearer, whose face in listening to them blushes with 
blood and whose eyes shed tears and blink fast from 
immoderate laughter. Some of them expel the tears of 
the hearer, render his body frigid, and cause the radiance 
of his face to droop ; such is the news of unhappy and 
disastrous events. Some of them excite the hearer to 
munificence and make him generous to the one who is 
asking for help and soliciting favour ; such is the case of 
the glorification of generous people and the description 
of praises and rewards which in exchange for their 
liberality they receive in this world and in the world to 
come. Some of them make the hearer avaricious, and 
turn him away from generosity ; such is the news of a 
man whose extravagance has reduced to poverty and 
constrained to penury and misery. Some of them incite 
him to anger and irritation, and make him stretch his 
hand to strike and his tongue to disapprove. Some of 
them kindle his passion, move him, and take possession 
of his eager desires; such is the record of chaste and 
attractive maidens and the bestowal of encomium on 
their good qualities, their fragrance, the smoothness 
of their touch, and the beauty of their smile ; especially 
when this record is adorned with gems of melodies 
which excite to emotion and infatuation. 

Some of them incite people to rush into dreadful 
things, and to put their life in danger, and that at an 
interval of more than a thousand years after the death 
of the first narrator; such is the case of what we are 
told of the Buddhists oi India and of Magians, and the 
like. Some of the Indians consume themselves with 
different kinds of burning; some of them expose their 
body to birds of prey, that they may eat it ; some of them 
wander about like madmen in a waterless desert in order 
that they may perish therein ; some of them throw them- 
selves from a high mountain, and fall upon a tree of iron 
set up with edged ramifications as sharp as swords 
and spears out of zeal for facts handed down to them 



STORIES AND COMMON AGREEMENTS 9 

by some insolent liars who took them from some astute 
deceivers. 

I mentioned these facts in order that the reader may 
know that he ought to avoid them and to flee from them 
towards the harbours of wisdom and the ports of thought 
and consideration. They are indeed most detrimental to 
the souls, which they affect more swiftly than deadly 
arrows and vehement passions. They enter the heart 
from two doors the deceitfulness and delusiveness of 
which are great, on account of fanciful and unreal con- 
ceptions ; these are the two senses of hearing and vision, 
by means of which the insinuations of historical events 
are grasped. The sense of vision makes sometimes a 
single object appear as two and a crooked object as 
straight, like poles in rivers ; it makes sometimes a non- 
existent object as existent, as in illusion and mirage. 
As to hearing, sometimes one believes a murmuring of 
the wind to be the thunder ; and a simple imitation of 
a dog, a lion, and a ring-dove, to be the actual whining, 
or roaring, or cooing. 



III. 

DIRECTIONS FOR THE VERIFICATION OF STORIES. 

I HAVE first spoken of the division of stories and of the 
strange way in which they impress soul and body through 
the accidents and happenings of the past. Now what 
nations have agreed to in their argumentation and con- 
sidered as thorough investigation and caution, is that 
when someone is claiming a right, or telling a certain 
story, if he brings two or three men endowed with sound 
judgment and discrimination, truth is established and 
suspicion and doubt are expelled from the judge and the 
criminal. As to the history of the prophets, its issues 
being such as to lead to heaven or to hell, we will not be 
satisfied with two witnesses, nor with an oath, nor with 
the avowal of a whole community, if account is not taken 
of the testimonies of truth and the analogical evidences 
that I shall set forth below. 

We have already seen that communities great in 
number, exalted in rank, and renowned in men of high 
intellectual and mental acumen bear witness to all the 
claims laid by many astute liars, as in the case of the 
Zindlks and the Magians. This happens either through 
tradition and habit, as we have shown, or through 
stupidity and chicanery, or through constraint and com- 
pulsion. This Zoroaster, the pseudo-prophet of the 
Magians, did. He did not cease to wait repeatedly upon 
King Bishtasaf until he reached him, and then he threw 
the seed of his false suggestions into his breast ; next, 
he did not cease to circumvent him by the mention of 
God and His cult, and to turn round him on all sides 
in order to remove his refractoriness, until he changed 

(10) 



VERIFICATION OF STORIES u 

his belief and bent him to his opinions. Then he showed 
him the Dualism which was in his mind, made good 
before his eyes the intercourse with mothers and 
daughters, and the eating of filthy and stinking muck ; 
after that it was the monarch who constrained the in- 
habitants of his kingdom to his belief. 

Mani did similarly. He appeared at a time in which 
there were generally two religions : Christianism and 
Magianism. He deceived the Christians by telling them 
that he was the messenger of the Christ peace be with 
Him and circumvented the Magians by agreeing with 
them to the two Principles. 

After having seen that there is a common agreement 
such as this, and another one such as that found in Islam, 
it becomes evident that the acceptance of every common 
agreement is wrong, and the rejection of every common 
agreement is an error, and that the common agreement 
is not sufficient by itself to prove the veracity of a pro- 
phetic office, which, indeed, needs signs and marks of 
truth, such as those God has accumulated in the case of 
the Prophet may God bless and save him. He who in- 
tends to verify historical events such as these or to redress 
them, has, therefore, to investigate the story that comes to 
his knowledge, and to examine its purpose and its defects ; 
if he finds in it and with it something which would con- 
tradict it and make it a falsity, no other demonstration is 
wanted ; such is the fact of Musailamah, the liar. When 
he claimed the prophetic office, he was asked about the 
Prophet may God bless and save him and he answered 
that he held him to be a speaker of truth and believed in 
his prophetic office, but the Prophet may God bless and 
save him having been asked about him, denounced him. 
In the positive answer of Musailamah there was some- 
thing to negative it; thus he gave the lie to himself, and 
showed signs of contradiction and stupidity. It is for this 
reason that learned men have said that when a forger and 
false dogmatiser claims the prophetic office, God does not 



12 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

give him any respite till from his own tongue there flows 
the contradiction with which one might argue against 
those who believed in him ; as God has done in the case 
of Zoroaster, Mani and the like, who contradicted, gain- 
said themselves, and became inconsistent 

Zoroaster said that Hormiz name of their god 
was eternal, compassionate, omniscient and omnipotent ; 
then he ascribed to him the description used by ignorant 
and stupid people, in saying that Satan was born of his 
mind, and that God was unable to destroy him. Mani, 
too, did similarly, in saying first that God was eternal, 
omnipotent, incomparable, and in saying, next, that dark- 
ness was eternal, and God would be overcome, and His 
followers defeated and made captive. He who believes in 
him who gives the lie to himself is in great error. 

So also are the Christians ; having said at the be- 
ginning of their profession of faith : 4< We believe in God, 
creator of every thing visible and invisible," and then 
adding that the Christ is creator and not created, contra- 
diction appears in their utterances. And if we turn to 
the Books of their faith, we find that they are not in 
alignment with their belief, because all of them affirm that 
God is creator and everything else is created. I have 
demonstrated this point in the part that follows this, 
where I have explained what concerns all Christian de- 
nominations, and where I have set forth one hundred and 
thirty arguments against them from the Books of the 
prophets, apart from rational demonstrations, illustrative 
examples, and illuminating analogies. In this I have for 
aim their instruction, their guidance, and the fulfilment 
of the duty of love and compassion that God has imposed 
upon some creatures towards one another. As to what 
concerns the Jews and others, I have treated it in the 
fourth part in a short but significant manner. 

The one interesting point which is treated here and 
which ccntains refutations of a restricted dimension and 
easy, is thcJ: of the news reaching an intelligent man of 



VERIFICATION OF STORIES 13 

sound judgment, who examines it carefully, and turns it 
upside down thoroughly; if he finds in it and with it 
something which would impair its genuineness and con- 
tradict it, or if he finds it at variance with the religious 
Books of the people, he will have no need of anything 
else for its refutation, and the manifestation of its falsity 
and groundlessness. When truth is quickly found, the 
mind is relieved. This Mu'awiah did with a man from 
Basrah who had asked him for two thousand palm-tree 
trunks for the erection of his house. Mu'awiah questioned 
him: "What are the dimensions of thy house?" The 
man answered: "Two parasangs by two parasangs/' 
Mu'awiah asked: "Is thy house in Basrah, or is Basrah 
in thy house ?" The man answered: "My house is in 
Basrah/' Mu'awiah then said: "All Basrah is less than 
two parasangs. " In the story itself there was something 
testifying to its falsity. 

Another man said, while in 'Irak "We were at 
Kumis, 1 in a garden situated on the western side of the 
town, at a distance of three hundred parasangs. " The 
man to whom this story was told said: "Therefore, we 
are now in the middle of that garden, since there is less 
than this distance between Kumis and 'Irak. 11 

Fakhir said also the same in his book where he prefers 
Kahtan to 'Adnan. After having mentioned that 'Adf, 
son of Hatim, had a son, he added: " Where have you 
another one like him? His father told him to drive 
away strangers from his table, but the boy refused, say- 
ing: 'Father, command this to other than me/" And 
Fakhir said: "The boy is a generous man, son of a 
generous father, who was himself son of a generous 
father ; and is a magnanimous man, son of a magnanimous 
father, who was himself son of a magnanimous father/ 1 
Now I find that the fact itself contradicts his saying. 
The father had ordered the boy to drive away people 
from his table ; this the boy disliked and rejected ; the 

1 In Tabaristan. 



14 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

boy is, therefore, a generous man, son of an avaricious 
father, and a magnanimous man, son of an ungenerous 
father. 

Let the man who wishes to verify the history of the 
prophets, and to inquire into it, act likewise; let him 
examine the testimonies of truth and the analogical 
evidences, which I have found abundantly existent in ten 
different manners with regard to the Prophet may God 
bless and save him in such a way that they are not due 
to anyone but to Christ peace be with Him. I will 
explain this point and set it forth clearly, in order that 
the onlooker may know that he with whom these pre- 
rogatives are found, the prophetic office must necessarily 
be ascribed to him, and a strict accountability to God 
rests with the man who disbelieves in him : 

First, the Prophet may God bless and save him 
called to One, Eternal, Omniscient, and Just God, whom 
no one can overcome and hurt ; in that he was in con- 
formity with all the prophets. Second, he was pious, 
upright, sincere, and his laws and prescriptions are 
praiseworthy. Third, he peace be with him wrought 
clear miracles which only the prophets and the chosen 
ones of God can work. Fourth, he prophesied about 
events hidden from him, which took place during his life- 
time. Fifth, he prophesied about many events concerning 
this world and its kingdoms, which were realised after 
his death. Sixth, he produced a book which by neces- 
sity and by undeniable arguments is a sign of prophetic 
office. Seventh, his victory over the nations is also by 
necessity and by undeniable arguments a manifest sign 
of prophetic office. Eighth, his missionaries who trans- 
mitted his history are most honest and righteous men, to 
whose like nobody can attribute lie and falsehood. Ninth, 
he peace be with him is the last of the prophets, and 
if he had not been sent, the prophecies of the prophets 
about him and about Ishmael peace be with both of 
them would have been vain. Tenth, the prophets 



VERIFICATION OF STORIES 15 

peace be with them prophesied about him long before 
tiis appearance, and described his mission, his country, 
his time, and the submission of nations to him, and of 
kings to his nation. 

These are clear prerogatives and sufficient testimonies, 
which if somebody can show forth as due to him, his arrow 
will not miss its butt, his truth will triumph, and will have 
the right to be acknowledged ; and he who throws them 
away and rejects them, his efforts would be fruitless, and 
this world and that to come would be lost to him. I shall 
treat this point succinctly, chapter by chapter, and I shall 
show forth the testimonies of the prophets about it. I 
shall not restrict myself to one prophet, but I shall appeal 
to many of them ; nor shall I be satisfied with one pro- 
phecy, but I shall bring forth more than sixty prophecies. 
What I most desire is that God should turn my effort to 
union and admonition, and to outlet from blindness, to 
anyone who is not insolent and arrogant, nor obstinately 
set in folly and perverseness. 

If we ask especially the Christians why they dis- 
believe in the Prophet peace be with him they would 
say because of three reasons : first, because we do not see 
that a prophet has prophesied about him prior to his 
coming ; second, because we do not find in the Kur'an the 
mention of a miracle or a prophecy ascribed to the man 
who produced it ; third, because the Christ has told us 
that no prophet will rise after Him. These are their 
strongest objections, and I will refute them, by the help 
of God. If I am able to prove that the contrary of what 
they assert is true, and that for our belief in prophets 
there is no such necessary condition as that they mention, 
they will have no more excuse before God and their 
conscience, and those who adduce such pleas and cling 
to them are in the path of unbelief and perdition. 

The answer to their saying that no prophet has 
prophesied about the Prophet, and that the prophetic 
office of the prophets is not true and acceptable except 



16 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

when it is preceded by other prophecies, because he who 
believes in a prophet who has no previous prophecy about 
him would be in error and unbelief, is this : let them tell us 
who prophesied about the prophet Moses himself may 
God bless him or about David, or about Isaiah, or about 
Jeremiah, who are considered by them as the greatest of 
the prophets peace be with them ; and since there is no 
previous prophecy about them, he who believes in them 
would, therefore, contradict truth for falsehood, and thus 
incur the wrath of the Lord of the worlds. The answer 
to their saying that in the Kur'an there is no mention of 
a miracle wrought by the Prophet may God bless and 
save him and that he who has no record in his book of 
a sign or a miracle has no reason to be acknowledged, is 
this : let them show us the miracle wrought by David 
and recorded in his Psalter ; if they do not find it for us, 
why and for what reason have they called him a prophet, 
while no prophet has previously prophesied about him, 
and there is no record of a miracle in his Book ? 

From what I have explained it has become evident 
that, in the process of the verification of the history of 
prophets, there is no need of a previous prophecy about 
them, nor of a mention in their books of their miracles 
or the outward signs of their claims. There are indeed 
prophets who, as stated above, have in their Books the 
record of a miracle and a manifest prophecy, but about 
whom no previous prophet has prophesied ; and no one 
has for that denied their claim ; such is the case of Moses, 
Daniel, Isaiah, and the like peace be with them. There 
are also prophets on whom God has bestowed all these 
prerogatives ; such is the case of the Christ peace be 
with Him who has wrought wonderful miracles, fore- 
told hidden and unknown things, and has previous pro- 
phecies about Him prior to His appearance. There are 
prophets who have miracles recorded in their Books, 
but who did not prophesy ; such is the case of Elisha, 
who gave life to two dead men, but has no direct pro- 



VERIFICATION OF STORIES 17 

phecy. Some prophets, such as Ezekiel and Hosea and 
others, did not work any miracle, and they prophesied ; 
but their prophecy having been realised long after their 
death, people who saw them and acknowledged them had 
no reason for their belief in them, in the absence of a 
miracle shown by them to their contemporaries. There 
are some prophets who have in their Books neither 
miracle nor prophecy, nor convincing stories, and are 
counted among the prophets ; such is the case of Malachi, 
Haggai, and Nahum, whose Books of prophecies does 
not exceed three or four pages, for each one of them ; 
such is, also, the case of Miriam the prophetess, Moses's 
sister, and of Hannah the prophetess, who have neither 
Book, nor prophecy, nor miracle, nor sign, and they have 
counted them among the prophets. O my cousins, why 
and for what reason have you called these prophets ? 

This being the condition of the Christians, why do 
they disbelieve in the prophetic office of the Prophet 
peace be with him who actually possesses the above 
mentioned prerogatives, some of which are perpetuated 
in the Kur'an, and some in the Tradition, which is of 
equal value to the Kur'an with the sole difference 
that those which are contained in the Kur'an afford 
stronger and clearer argument, and more cogent 
prophecy. How can they reject them with the explana- 
tion that I shall give of the prophecies of the pious 
prophets about him, and with the allusions of the ma- 
jority of them to his prophetic office, and to his time 
may the peace and the blessings of God be with all of 
them. If you say that you have rejected and avoided the 
Prophet may God bless and save him because there is 
no prophet after the Christ, I will make it clear from 
your own Books that the man who whispered this into 
your ears and made it flow from your tongues was not an 
adviser but a deceiver to you, not reliable but suspect. 

To this effect, it is written in the eleventh chapter of 
the Book of the Acts, which contains the Epistles of the 



1 8 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

Apostles, that "In those days, prophets came from 
Jerusalem, and one of them, called Agabus, stood up and 
prophesied to them that in those countries there will be 
famine and great dearth. " l It is said in this same chapter, 
that " In the church of Antioch, there were prophets and 
teachers, as Barnabas, and Simon, and Lucius of the 
town of Cyrene and Manael and Saul/' 2 All these five 
prophets, according to what is recorded, were in Antioch. 
Some of the women prophetesses are also mentioned. It 
is said in the nineteenth chapter of this book that " Philip 
the interpreter had four daughters prophetesses." 3 Luke 
said, too, in the book of the Acts, that the group going to 
Antioch " Went to the house 4 of Judas and Silas, because 
they also were prophets. 5 

The Christians are therefore short of evidence for their 
claim, and their saying is incoherent, and their argu- 
ments have been refuted and overthrown ; it has become 
evident that after the Christ there were people whom 
they have called Apostles and Prophets ; such is the case 
of Paul himself. 

I shall now, by the help and assistance of God, ex- 
plain the ten prerogatives which I have set forth. I shall 
present in each chapter what is perpetuated in the 
Kur'an, as a reproach against those who pretend that 
there is no mention of a miracle in it. I wish the 
reader of this book to realise its merit and the excell- 
ence of its value, and to know that those born in the 
religion of Islam and firmly attached to it, who have pre- 
fusely dealt with this subject, did not reach what I have 
attained; he who has a doubt in his breast, let him 
compare my book, the prophecies, the convincing and 
peremptory proofs which it contains, the riddles and the 

1 Acts xi. 28. 2 Acts xiii. i. 8 Acts xxi. 9. 

4 The translator has misunderstood the Syriac particle dibaith^ which 
means partisans^ companions^ and has rendered it literally by the word 
house. 

1 Acts xv. 32. 



VERIFICATION OF STORIES 19 

intricacies of the adversaries which I have carefully ex- 
amined, with all that other writers have written, since the 
appearance of Islam down to our own time. This is due 
to the help and assistance of God, and to the blessings of 
the Commander of the Faithful may God strengthen him 
and to the obligations which God imposes through him 
on his friends and freedmen. It is he may God prolong 
his life who called me to this work, guided me in it, and 
convinced me that on account of it I shall be entitled to 
a great reward from God and a good memory from 
man. Before I became Muslim I was neglectful, led 
astray, unaware of the right direction, and groping my 
way far from what later was disclosed to me. Thanks 
and blessings be to God who has lifted up the veil from 
my sight, opened the locks for me, and saved me from the 
darkness of error ! 



IV. 
CHAPTER I. 

THE PROPHETPEACE BE WITH HIM CALLED TO THE 
UNITY OF GOD, AND TO THE SAME OBJECT AS THAT 
INCLUDED IN THE FAITH OF ABRAHAM AND ALL 
THE PROPHETSPEACE BE WITH THEM. 

The most trustworthy witness to this is the Kur'an, 
which shows that the Prophet peace be with him 
called only to the God of Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac and 
Jacob, to the unity of God, and to what pious prophets 
had proclaimed and sound minds had demonstrated. 
Among other things, God the Most High, said in the 
Kur'an : 

11 Say, He is God alone ; God the Eternal ; He begets 
not and is not begotten, nor is there like unto Him any- 
one." l And He said : 

"God bears witness that there is no God but He, and 
the angels and those possessed of knowledge, standing 
up for justice. There is no God but He, the mighty, the 
wise." 2 And He said: 

"Say, O God, Lord of the Kingdom, Thou givest the 
kingdom to whomsoever Thou pleasest, and strippest 
kingdom from whomsoever Thou pleasest; Thou 
ures t whom Thou pleasest, and abasest whom Thou 
please> s t ; in Thy hand is good. Verily, Thou art mighty 
overall^" a And He said : 

" Hov> v can ye disbelieve in God, when ye were dead 
and He mi ^j e y OU a ii ve> anc j then He will take your life 
and then m^ke you alive again, and then to Him will ye 

'Kiu. -^ I4 Kur. iii. 16. 

8 Kur. iii. 25. 
'(20) 



NATURE OF THE PROPHETS CALL 21 

return." 1 About the excellence of God, His mercy and 
His justice, He said : 

" Whoso does right it is for his soul, and whoso does 
evil, it is against it, for thy Lord is not unjust towards 
His servants." 2 And He said : 

"And he who gains a good action, we will increase 
good for him thereby; verily, God is forgiving and grate- 
ful." 3 And He said: 

"And he who does the weight of an atom of good 
shall see it, and he who does the weight of an atom of 
evil shall see it." 4 And He said : 

11 What befalls thee of good it is from God, and what 
befalls thee of bad it is from thyself." 5 And He said: 

11 God will not require of the soul save its capacity ; it 
shall have what it has earned, and it shall owe what has 
been earned from it" 6 In exalting the grace of God and 
His compassion for His servants, He said : 

14 Verily, God would not wrong by the weight of an 
atom ; and if it is a good work, He will double it, and 
bring from Himself a mighty reward." 7 And He said : 

"We did not wrong them, but they wronged them- 
selves." 8 And He said : 

" And when they swerved, God made their hearts to 
swerve ; for God guides not the people who work 
abomination." 9 And He said : 

11 That is because they believed and then disbelieved, 
wherefore is a stamp set on their hearts so that they do 
not understand." 10 And He said : 

" He who brings a good work shall have ten like it ; 
but he who brings a bad work shall be recompensed 
only with the like thereof, and they shall not be 
wronged." 11 And He said : 

1 ur. ii. 26. 2 ur. xli. 46. 

8 Kur. xlii. 22. 4 Kur. xcix. 7-8. 

6 Kur. iv. 81. 8 Kur. ii. 286. 

7 Kur. iv. 44. 8 Kur. xi. 103. 

9 Kur. Ixi. 5. 10 Kur. Ixiii. 3. 

11 Kur. vi. 161. 



22 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

41 How will it be when we have gathered them to- 
gether for a day whereof there is no doubt, when each 
soul shall be paid what it has earned." 1 

This is the faith of Adam, of Noah, of Abraham, and 
of all the prophets and righteous men may God's bles- 
sings be with them ; and the adversaries do not doubt 
and suspect it. 

1 Kur. iii. 24. 



V. 
CHAPTER II. 

ON THE MERIT OF HIS PRESCRIPTIONS AND HIS LAWS. 

As to the dictations and prescriptions of his religion, 
they are : love of God the Most High ; love of parents ; 
strengthening of the ties of relationship ; generosity 
with one's possessions ; devotion to gratuitous benefac- 
tions ; asceticism ; fasting ; prayer ; general alms ; legal 
alms ; forgiveness of the culprit ; fulfilment of en- 
gagements ; avoidance of deceit and falsehood ; getting 
rid of wrongs by the kindliest way ; prohibition of 
intoxication, immorality, adultery, and usury ; ordinances 
for spreading safety and justice ; striking off the head of 
recalcitrant unbelievers ; and other points without which 
there is no firm religion and world. Among other 
things is the following saying of the Most High God : 

" For those who expend in alms, in prosperity and 
adversity, for those who repress their rage, and those 
who pardon men; God loves the kind." 1 And this 
other saying : 

14 Those who expend their wealth by night and day, 
secretly and openly, they shall have their reward with 
their Lord. No fear shall come on them, nor shall they 
grieve/ 7 2 And He said : 

" Take to pardon and order what is kind, and shun 
the ignorant ; and if an incitement from the devil incites 
you, then seek refuge in God ; verily, He both hears and 
knows." 3 And He said : 

41 And twist not thy cheek proudly, nor walk in the 
land haughtily ; verily, God loves not every arrogant 

1 Kur. iii. 128. a Kur. ii. 275. 3 Kur. vii. 198-199. 

(23) 



24 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

boaster; but be moderate in thy walk, and lower thy 
voice; verily, the most disagreeable of voices is the 
voice of asses. " 1 And He said : 

11 He will not catch you up for a casual word in your 
oaths, but He will catch you up for what your hearts 
have earned. " 2 And He said : 

41 Say, I have no power over myself for harm or for 
profit, save what God will." 3 And He said : 

" God desires for you what is easy, and desires not 
for you what is difficult/ 1 4 And He said : 

"Verily, men resigned and women resigned, and 
believing men and believing women, and devout men 
and devout women, and truthful men and truthful 
women, and patient men and patient women, and humble 
men and humble women, and almsgiving men and alms- 
giving women, and fasting men and fasting women, and 
men who guard their private parts and women who 
guard their private parts, and men who remember God 
much and women who remember Him, God has pre- 
pared for them forgiveness and a mighty reward." 5 And 
He said : 

" Verily, God bids you do justice and good, and give 
to kindred their due, and He forbids you to sin, and do 
wrong, and oppress ; He admonishes you, haply ye may 
be mindful. " 6 And He said : 

11 And obey not any mean swearer, a back-biter, a 
walker about with slander ; a forbidder of good ; a 
transgressor, a sinner ; rude, and base-born, too. " 7 

God did not leave a question which would edify 
and reform His servants, nor a counsel which would 
tend to please Him, without having spoken of it 

What shows the merit of the divine call of the Pro- 
phet peace be with him is that he extended his pro- 
clamation to all mankind, without sending a special and 

1 Kur. xxxi. 17-18. 2 Kur. ii. 225. 

8 Kur. x. 50. 4 Kur. ii. 181. 

5 Kur. xxxiii. 35. 8 Kur. xvi. 92. 

7 Kur. Ixviii. 10-13. 



MERIT OF HIS LAWS 25 

particular invitation to some people to the exclusion of 
others, as the rest of the prophets had done, except the 
Christ peace be with Him. Indeed he generalised his 
call and promised pardon and heaven to all. Other 
prophets struck blindly with the sword those who were 
round them, and squandered their fortune, without cal- 
ling, forgiving, edifying and warning, as the Prophet 
may God bless and save him was commanded to do. 

As to the asceticism of the Prophet may God bless 
and save him his austerity, and his disregard of the 
allurements and deceitfulness of this world, I will relate 
some facts from which it will be inferred that from a 
man of his devotion and temperance no one conceives 
deceit and falsehood. It has been related of him peace 
be with him that it was only after much pain and 
anxiety that he ate sufficiently bread or meat. 1 When 
he may God bless and save him gave his daughter 
Fatimah for marriage to 'Ali may God be pleased with 
both of them the only dowry that he gave her was a 
bed woven with twisted palm-leaves, a pillow of skin 
stuffed with palm-tree fibres, an earthen pot, a water- 
skin, and a basket containing some raisins and dates. 2 
1 Ayeshah may God be pleased with her said : " We 
used to stay forty days without firelight/* Having been 
asked on what they lived, she answered : " On water 
and dates." 3 

Fatimah would grind herself the grains for flour ; her 
hands became sorely hurt, and traces of the handle of the 
mill were seen in them ; 4 she complained of that to the 
Prophet may God bless and save him and asked him 
for a servant to serve her ; and he answered her : " My 
little daughter, I have not in my house a place to contain 
all the Muslim women of whom you are one ; therefore re- 
member and thank God frequently/ 1 He peace be with 

l Cf. I. S. i., ii., 114-119. MusL ii. 531. 

3 Musn. i. 84, 93, 104, 108. 

8 I. S. i. ii. 114-119. Buk. iii. 167 ; viii. 107. MusL ii. 531. 

4 Musn. i 96, 1 06, 123, 136. 



26 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

him would fasten tightly a stone on his stomach out of 
hunger, eat sitting on the ground, put, when sleeping, 
his hand under his head as a pillow, and wear his 
mantle and say : " I am a servant, I eat and sleep like a 
servant." 1 He, too may God bless and save him 
would produce from his weeping, while in prayer, a 
noise resembling that of the boiling of a cooking-pot. 2 

Among the traditions referring to the magnanimity 
of his conduct peace be with him and to the gravity 
of his character, is that the angel Gabriel peace be with 
him came to him and said : "O Muhammad, I brought 
thee the magnanimity of conduct of this world and of the 
world to come : thou shouldst join with the man who 
broke with thee, give to the man who deprived thee, and 
forgive the man who wronged thee." And he said : 
" Visit the sick, give food to the hungry, and take away 
the chains from the captives/' 3 He may God bless and 
save him forbade tittle-tattle, frequent questions, and 
extravagance. 4 In commanding moderation and content 
in one's condition, he peace be with him said : "The 
Holy Spirit has whispered in my mind 5 that a person 
will not die until he has completely provided for his 
livelihood." And he said : " He who visits the sick is 
upon the palm-trees of Paradise." 6 And he peace be 
with him said : " I am not for games and pleasures, 
and games and pleasures are not for me." 7 

And he said in praise of asceticism : " He who accumu- 
lates wealth will come in the day of judgment having 
over his eyes a scald-headed snake with two black 
specks." 8 And he peace be with him said : " Fear 
the Fire by giving alms, although it be but one half of a 

1 Cf. Buk. v. 120, viii. 105. Musi. ii. 193. Jahiz, Avares^ 240, 241, 
242 (edit. Van Vloten). I. S. i. ii. 114, 159. 

2 Lane's Lexicon, i. 52. 8 Buk. iv. 71 ; vii. 130. 
4 Cf. Buk. passim in Rikak. B See Lane, iii. 1 188. 

6 Musi. ii. 383. For this tradition see Taj. vi. 81. 

7 See Lane, iii. 862. 8 Cf. Taj. v. 393. 



MERIT OF HIS LAWS 27 

date." 1 And he said: "I stood in the door of heaven, 
and I saw that those who entered through it were 
generally the poor, while the rich were cast in prison/' 2 

He, too peace be with him would say : " God has 
mercy on the man who owes his safety to his silence, or 
speaks when speech is necessary for success." It is 
related also of him peace be with him that he never 
compelled anyone to give anything ; that he never asked 
anything from anyone, except for the sake of God ; and 
that no one ever asked him anything without his giving 
it to him for the sake of God. 3 

What the Most High God has prescribed and laid 
down to his people in the matter of prayers, ablutions, 
and preliminary preparations dealing with washing after 
excretion, cleansing the teeth, rinsing the mouth, and 
other purifications ; attendance to public prayer with 
humble devotion, silence, keeping of ranks, quiet, reitera- 
tion of genuflexion and prostration, and utterance of 
words at each genuflexion and prostration, in order that 
their knowledge might extend to everybody, little or 
grown up, male slave or female slave, all this is as 
something due to the dignity and the majesty of the 
Creator, when His servant is present before Him and 
asking from Him. 

It is related also of him peace be with him that one 
day, on the occasion of a temporary interruption of his 
revelations, he told some people who were present with 
him : " How can revelations not be interrupted when 
you do not trim your nails, nor clip your moustache, nor 
cleanse your finger-joints." 4 He, too peace be with 
him would say : " No human speech fits prayer, which 
is only for glorification, praise, and reading of the 
Kur'an." This was against the deed of those who came 

1 Musi. i. 375. Hish. ii. 93. Buk. iv. 207 ; viii. 122, 126. Musn. i. 
388, 446. 

2 Cf. Buk. iv. 122 ; viii. 105, 124. See also Musn. i. 224, 355 ; ii. 175. 

3 Cf. I.S. i., ii. 92. Musi. ii. 290. 4 Musn. i. 243. 



28 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

to it when stinking with foul smell or polluted, and those 
who interrupted their prayers with talks, games, spitting, 
and eructation. 

It is related also of the Prophet may God bless and 
save him that, speaking on behalf of the Most High 
God, he said : " I have prepared for my servants what 
eye has not seen, ear has not heard, and the heart of a 
man has not conceived ; except that with which I have 
made them acquainted." l 

Among the things which make his religion easy and 
free from restraint is what God has ordered, through 
him, about the meal at daybreak, the shortening of prayer 
for the sick and the travellers, and his saying that the 
three days following the Day of Sacrifice should be for 
eating, drinking, and making use of marriage. 

One of the marks of the merit of his religion, and of 
the reasonableness of the prescriptions of the Kur'an, is 
that we find that the Torah which is in the hands of the 
People of the Book says : " Everyone who kills should be 
killed." Now Moses himself peace be with him and 
David, and other prophets as well as kings of the 
Children of Israel, have killed many people, but they 
have not deserved to be killed. The Kur'an limits and 
defines that in saying : " And whoso kills a believer pur- 
posely, his reward is hell, to dwell therein for aye." 2 It 
has been related of him peace be with him that he 
said : " He who slays a person with whom he is on terms 
of peace, will not perceive the odour of Paradise." 3 This 
is a restricted, limited, corrected, and polished order. 

Moses and Jesus peace be with them said : " Every 
claim is settled by two or three witnesses ; " so the Jews 
and the Christians say. But it happens that the two 
witnesses are wicked and liars ; God, therefore, said 

1 1 Cor. ii. 9 ; Is. Ixiv. 4. This well-known tradition of Bukhari is 
well catalogued in Taj ix. 380. 

2 Kur. iv. 95. 

3 Buk. iv. 103 ; ix. 14. See Lane, iii. 1178. 



MERIT OF HIS LAWS 29 

through the Prophet may God bless and save him 
" And bring as witnesses two men of equity from among 
you." 1 In this He limited and enlightened the point at 
issue with a short, significant, important, and clear 
saying. 

Moses peace be with him ordered the children of 
Israel to curse openly, by the tongue of the nation, any- 
one who transgresses or neglects something from the 
laws and the prescriptions of the Torah ; but it happens 
that the one who had transgressed some of them, or had 
trespassed and committed shortcomings against them, 
repents and shows penitence, and is no more worthy of 
curse. Therefore, the Kur'an says : " Those who when 
they do a crime, or wrong themselves, remember God 
and ask forgiveness for their sins and who forgives sins 
save God ? and do not persevere in what they did, the 
while they know ; these have their reward : pardon from 
their Lord, and gardens beneath which rivers flow, 
dwelling therein for aye ; for pleasant is the reward of 
those who act like this/' 2 These are messages and 
points which demonstrate that the man who laid them 
down was sound, steadfast, pious, devout, and was not a 
a plagiarist, an appropriator of others' rights, nor one 
making light of things and lacking gravity. 

1 Kur. Ixv. 2. 2 Kur. iii. 129-130. 



VI. 
CHAPTER III. 

THE MIRACLES OF THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND 
SAVE HIM WHICH HAVE BEEN DENIED AND RE- 
JECTED BY THE PEOPLE OF THE BOOK. 

I WILL only relate the miracles of the Prophet peace be 
with him which afford ground for argument with equit- 
able people. I will begin the subject with what is found 
in the Kur'an, in order that the adversary may not say 
that if the Prophet may God bless and save him had 
wrought a miracle, it would have been mentioned in it, 
in the same manner as the miracles of Moses and Jesus 
peace be with them are recorded in the Torah and 
the Gospel. 

Among his miracles which took place in his time 
peace be with him and to which the Kur'an bears 
witness, is that he was transferred in a single night from 
the Sacred Mosque to the Remote Mosque ; l and this is 
the saying of the Most High God : 

" Celebrated be the praises of Him who took His 
servant by night from the Sacred Mosque to the Remote 
Mosque, the precinct of which we have blessed, to show 
him of our signs." 2 

The Arabs rejected this, saying: "When and how 
could he cover in a single night the distance which takes 
two months to go and return ? " Then, Abu Bakr may 
God be pleased with him went to him and asked him 
about it. And he peace be with him said : " Yes ; and 

1 The Commentators believe that these terms refer to the Ka'bah of 
Maccah and the temple of Jerusalem respectively. 
2 Kur, xvii. I. See the Commentators. 

(30) 



MIRACLES OF THE PROPHET 31 

I encountered the caravan of such and such a tribe in 
such and such a valley ; one of their camels had bolted 
away, and I directed them to it. I met, too, with the 
caravan of such and such a tribe, while they were asleep ; 
I drank water from one of their vessels ; their caravan is 
now coming preceded by a dusky camel carrying two 
sacks, one black and the other black and white/' People 
rushed towards the caravan route, and behold, the 
caravan was coming preceded by a dusky camel; and 
they could not find an objection to his miracle. 1 By my 
life, it is a clear and sufficient miracle, recorded in the 
Kur'an and accepted by the unanimity of the Muslims. 

Among the Prophet's miracles which God has men- 
tioned in His Book, is that when the polytheists harmed 
him and sneered at him, He said to him: " Therefore, 
publish what thou art bidden, and turn aside from the 
idolaters; verily, we are enough for thee against the 
scoffers." 2 This, too, is found in the Kur'an, and there are 
not two men who hold discordant views about it and about 
its interpretation ; it is that five persons of high standing 
among the polytheists were sneering at him and harming 
him. Gabriel peace be with him came and said to 
him : " When they make the circuit of the holy house, ask 
what thou wilt from God, and I will do it against them as 
punishment." One of them, Lahab son of Abu Lahab, 
met him in the circuit, and the Prophet may God bless 
and save him said : " Let God's dog eat thee ; " and a lion 
devoured him. Then, Walid ibn Mughirah met him, and 
the Prophet may God bless and save him made a sign 
to a wound that he had in the sole of his foot, and it 
became recrudescent and killed him. Then, Aswad ibn 
4 Abd Yaghuth met him, and the Prophet made a sign to 
his belly; and he became dropsical and died. Then, 
Aswad ibn Muttalib met him, and he threw a leaf on his 
face, saying : " My God, blind him, and cause his son to 
die ; " and all this happened to him. Then 'As ibn Wa'il 

1 Hish. ii. 7. 2 ur. xv. 94-95. 



32 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

met him, and he made a sign to the hollow of his foot, 
and a thorn entered into it and killed him. Then, Harith 
ibn Talatilah met him, and he made a sign to him, and he 
burst out with pus and perished. 1 It is in this way that 
the Prophet may God bless and save him was delivered 
from the Scoffers, who were men of high standing and 
chiefs of the tribe. 

It has been related on the authority of Aminah, the 
mother of the Prophet may God bless and save him 
that when he fell from the womb she saw light coming 
out with him, and that he fell on all fours, his face and 
sight being directed towards heaven. 2 

Among his resplendent miracles noticed by all who 
saw him in the Day of Badr, is that he threw dust on the 
face of the polytheists and said : " Confusion seize their 
faces ! " 3 ; and they fled and were killed. 

Anas ibn Malik may God be pleased with him has 
reported that he heard the cry of a man saying "O 
Apostle of God! the houses have been destroyed by 
the violence of the rain;" and he peace be with 
him said: "Let it fall round us and not upon us." 
And Anas said : " I saw with my eyes the clouds mov- 
ing away from the town." 4 He, too may God bless 
and save him said once to the polytheists who were 
present with him: "If any of you can pronounce the 
name of his father or of his brother, I am a liar;" 
and none of them was able to pronounce it. Two 
handfuls of dates were brought to him in the Day of the 
Dttch } and he ordered that they should be laid before 
him. His herald cried to the army, and everybody 
ate and was satisfied. In the Day of Badr, the sword of 

1 See the Commentators Zamakhshari and Baidawi on Kur. xv. 94, 
possibly quoting Hish. ii. 13. 

2 Cf. I.S. i. i. 63, 97. Hish. i. 155. Tab. I, 2, 968-9. 

3 See the historians of Badr Lit. "Faces have become ugly." See 
also Musn. i. 368. 

4 I.S. i. ii. .117. Hish. i. 255. Buk. ii. 34. 



MIRACLES OF THE PROPHET 33 

'Ukkashah ibn Mihsan was broken, and he said: "O 
Prophet of God, my sword is broken ; " and the Prophet 
peace be with him took the stem of a plant used as 
firewood and gave it to him, and said to him : " Shake 
it;" and 'Ukkashah shook it, and it became a sword, 
with which he went forth and fought ; and later, it re- 
mained with him all the time. 1 And he, too peace be 
with him took a pebble, which he moved with his hand, 
and it praised God ; then he put it in the hand of Abu 
Bakr, and it praised ; then he put it in the hand of 'Umar, 
and then in the hand of 'Uthman, and it praised in their 
hands. 

It is reported on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas may 
God have mercy upon him that a man on a foray took 
the nestlings of a bird. The bird came to the Apostle of 
God may God bless and save him and flapped its wings 
near his head, then it fell in his hands. The Prophet 
peace be with him said : " Who took the nestlings of this 
bird? Fetch them and give them back to it." They 
found them with a Muslim, and gave them back to it. 

It has been related that a camel knelt on his hands, 
then bellowed. The Prophet may God bless and save 
him called its owner and said : " This camel has com- 
plained and told me that it was with thee since its youth ; 
and thou workedst with it ; but now that it was old thou 
wishedst to kill it." The man answered: "It has told 
the truth, O Prophet of God, because I am not feeding 
it." 2 

It has been related, too, that Banu Ghifar wished to 
slaughter a calf, which spoke and said: "O Children of 
Ghifar ! a happy event ! a crier is crying in Maccah ' There 
is no God but Allah ; ' " and they left it and went to 
Maccah, where they found that the Prophet may God 
bless and save him had appeared ; and they believed in 
him. 3 

1 I.S. i. i. 125. Hish. ii. 225. 2 Cf. I.S. i. i. 124. 

3 Cf. I.S. i. i. 102-103. Hish. i. 201. 

3 



34 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

It has been related that a wolf made a raid on some 
sheep ; the shepherds said one to another : " Are you not 
amazed at this wolf? " The wolf spoke and said : " You 
are more to be amazed at than I ; a prophet has appeared 
in Maccah calling to God, and you do not answer him." 1 
All these are well-knbwn facts among all Muslims, who 
do not deny anything from them because they did not 
take place behind closed doors. What corroborates the 
miracle of the wolf is that the children of the man to 
whom the wolf spoke are called down to our own day 
" The children of the man to whom the wolf spoke ; " they 
transmit the fact among themselves, and they are traced 
back to it, in order that it may not be forgotten, and that 
no one may have a reason to discredit it. 

And he peace be with him invoked curses upon 
the Arabs, and rain was withheld from them, and the 
land was affected with drought. It has been told, too, 
of him peace be with him that he apprised Abu Sufyan 
of a secret affair which had taken place between him and 
his wife Hind. Abu Sufyan was amazed at that, and 
said to himself: "She has disclosed my secret; I will 
surely pound her hand on her foot." But the Prophet 
may God bless and save him said : " Do not commit 
any injustice against Hind ; she has not published any 
secret." Then Abu Sufyan said : "I had suspected her 
and was perplexed about her ; but since thou hast told 
me what I was "telling to myself, I ascertained that she is 
innocent of what I suspected her." 

Among the noted miracles of the Prophet peace be 
with him is the fact handed down by Anas ibn Malik, 
who said: "My mother took dates mixed with butter 
and curd and sent them to the Prophet may God bless 
and save him praying him to eat from them. The 
Prophet may God bless and save him stood up and 
said to his friends: 'Let us start/ When my mother 
noticed the crowd, she said ' O Apostle of God, I have 

^f. I.S. i. i. 114. Buk. iv. 182. 



MIRACLES OF THE PROPHET 35 

only prepared something sufficient for thy food, thine 
alone. '" And Anas said "The Prophet may God bless 
and save him called for divine blessing, and said to me 
4 Get in the crowd in companies of ten ; ' and they ate 
their fill and went out; and we, too, ate, and were 
satisfied/ 11 

It has been related on the authority of Ya'la ibn 
Umayyah 2 that the Prophet may God bless and save 
him being once on a journey, wished to make his ablu- 
tions, and said to me "Go to those two trees and tell 
them that the Apostle of God may God bless and save 
him commands them to draw near each other.' 1 And 
the two trees came furrowing the ground until they 
reached each other ; the Apostle of God may God bless 
and save him made then his ablutions between them, 
and ordered them to go back to their place ; and they 
went 3 It has been related, too, that a Jew invited him 
to dinner, and offered him a poisoned sheep ; but he 
peace be with him said : " This sheep tells me that it is 
poisoned." The Jew avowed that, and said : "I wished 
to test thee and said to myself ( If he is a prophet, the 
matter will not be hidden from him, but if he is an im- 
postor, he will eat of it, and I will rid people of him/ " 4 

It has been related on the authority of Jabir ibn 
'Abdallah al-Ansari, who said : " We set off on a journey 
with the Prophet may God bless and save him and we 
were very thirsty. We hurried towards him, and there 
was with him a drinking vessel in which there was 
water. He put his hand in it, and caused the water tc 
jet out of his fingers, as if there were springs. W^ 

!Cf. Buk. (passim). Musi. ii. 192. Cf. also I. S. i. i. 117, and i. ii 
124. 

2 A notable man in the province of Yaman, and according to Tad. ( i 
3, 1253), the first Chronologist. 

8 Cf. I.S. i. i. 112 ; MusL in Sirah* 

M.S. i. i. 113-114; ii. ii. 6-7; iv. 104. Buk. iv. 104; vii. 157 
MusL ii. 246. Cf. Musn. i. 397. 



36 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

drank and quenched our thirst, and made our ablutions ; 
and we were four hundred men." l 

This is enough for this work ; had we intended to 
exhaust the subject, the book would have been too 
bulky; but in what has been written there is remedy 
for the man whom God wishes to guide and to save. 
Some of it is taken from the material found in the Kur'an 
itself, and some of it is taken from the men from whom 
the Muslims took the Kur'an, and who are considered as 
reliable in all that is handed down to the nation from 
them. They resemble in that the Apostles of the Christ 
peace be with Him who transmitted to the Christians 
portions of the Gospel, and handed down to them the 
history of the Christ. Therefore, if those men are 
reliable and worthy of confidence in transmitting his 
history, they are not to be suspected in all that they 
have related of him ; but if they are not reliable in that 
point, they are to be suspected in all that they have 
transmitted, and are deceivers, first of themselves, and 
then of all men. 

-- ^ . Must. ii. 278-279, and 543. Musn. i. 251, 324, 

402. I.S. i. i. 117-118, 121. Cf. Tab. i, 4, 1703. 



VII. 
CHAPTER IV. 

THE PROPHETPEACE BE WITH HIM FORETOLD EVENTS 
UNKNOWN TO HIM, WHICH WERE REALISED IN HIS 
DAYS. 

WE will begin this chapter also with what is found in 
the Kur'an, in order to strengthen our argument and 
destroy the excuses of the adversaries. The Most High 
God said to His Apostle may God bless and save him 
"Ye shall verily enter the Sacred Mosque, if God 
please, in safety with shaven heads and cut hair, ye shall 
not fear." 1 And they entered it when he was still alive, 
as God had said. And He said: "And when those 
who misbelieve were crafty with thee to detain thee a 
prisoner, or kill thee, or drive thee forth ; they were 
crafty, but God was crafty too, for God is the best of 
crafty ones." 2 And it happened as God had said, and 
they wished to be crafty with him, but God thwarted 
their craftiness, and foiled their stratagem. 

And God said : " O Ye who believe ! remember God's 
favours towards you when hosts came to you, and we 
sent against them a wind and hosts that ye could not 
see." 3 With them God struck the infidels in the face; 
and it happened as He had said. And He said: "We 
will cast dread into the hearts of those who misbelieve ; 
strike off their necks then, and strike off from them 
every finger tip/' 4 And it happened as God had told 
him, and he did to them what he was ordered to do. 
And He said : " Dost thou not look on those who were 

1 Kur. xiviii. 27. 2 Kur. viii. 30. 

8 Kur. xxxiii. 9. 4 Kur. viii. 12. 

(37) 



38 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

hypocritical, saying to their brethren, who misbelieved 
amongst the People of the Book, ' If ye be driven forth, 
we will go forth with you; and we will never obey 
anyone concerning you ; and if ye be fought against we 
will help you/ But God bears witness that they are 
surely liars. If they be driven forth, these will not go 
forth with them; and if they be fought against, these 
will not help them ; or if they do help them, they will 
turn their backs in flight ; then shall they not be helped/' l 
It happened as God had said to his Prophet may God 
bless and save him because those men have been driven 
forth, and these their brethren did not go forth with 
them ; and they have been fought against, and they did 
not help them. 

What can a man say against these miracles, while the 
Kur'an mentions them and the Muslim community bears 
witness to their veracity, and all its members subscribe 
to their authenticity, and men and women converse about 
them ? If, while they are contained in the Kur'an, it is 
allowed to consider them as false and revile them, we 
will not believe the adversaries who say that the Torah 
and the Gospel do not contain falsehood to which the eye- 
witnesses of events had deliberately shut their eyes. If 
then this cannot be said about the Torah and the Gospel 
and their contemporaries, it is not allowed with regard 
to the Kur'an and its holders. About the breakers of 
faith from the polytheists of Kuraish, the Most High 
God said : " Fight against them ! God will torment them 
by your hands, and disgrace them, and aid you against 
them, and heal the breasts of a people who believe ; " 2 
and it happened as He said. 

Among authentic stories is the one transmitted by 
Sa'd ibn 'Ubadah as-Sa'idi, who said : " We were on a 
foray with the Prophet may God bless and save him 
and with us there was a man who would kill every poly- 
theist against whom he came to fight. We mentioned 

1 Kur. lix. 1 1. 2 Kur. ix. 14. 



THE PROPHET FORETOLD EVENTS 39 

this to the Prophet may God bless and save him and 
he said, " Is he not from the people of the fire ? " And 
Sa ( d added " I did not cease to follow him, in order to 
see the end of his story. He was wounded, and con- 
sidering death too slow, he put his sword on his navel, 
and pressed himself against it until he killed himself/' 1 

It is related, too, of him peace be with him that he 
said to Khalid ibn al-Walid and his friends when he sent 
them against Ukaidir of Dumat Al-Jandal : " You will 
find him on the roof of his house, directing cows," and 
they found him in that state. It has been related, too, 
of him may God bless and save him that his she- 
camel went astray, and he began to ask for her. The 
hypocrites said : "This Muhammad claims to know the 
secrets of heaven, and he does not know where his she- 
camel is." He knew upon what they were communing 
with themselves, and said : " I know but what my Lord 
tells me ; and he has told me that my she-camel is in 
such and such a valley, her head entangled in a tree." 
They sought for her and found her in such a state. 2 

It has been related of him may God bless and save 
him that one day he gathered the people and announced 
to them the death of Najashi, King of the Abyssinians, 
prayed for him, and said four times " God is most great" 3 
In that very day there came the news of his death, while 
the sea was separating him from the land of the Abys- 
sinians, and Maccah was not a highway like the highways 
of East and West. 4 

1 Buk. iv. 74 ; viii. 136. 2 Hish. iii. 335. 

3 Cf. Buk. v. 56. 

4 The Prophet having apparently announced the death of Najashi 
while at Madlnah and not at Maccah (Tab. 1,4, 1720) the author here 
wishes only to convey the idea that the shortest way from Abyssinia to the 
former was through the latter. 



VIII. 

CHAPTER V. 

THE PROPHECIES OF THE PROPHET PEACE BE WITH 
HIM WHICH WERE REALISED AFTER HIS DEATH. 

WE will begin this chapter also with the prophecies of 
the Prophet may God bless and save him which are 
mentioned in the Kur'an, in order that no argument may 
be left to the people of incredulity and obstinacy upon 
which to lean, nor a hold at which they may clutch. 
Among other sayings is the following of the Most High 
God : u Have we not expanded for thee thy breast ? and 
set down from thee thy load which galled thy back ? and 
exalted for thee thy renown ? " l That is to say, his 
name shall be invoked and mentioned after that of God 
in every sermon, enchantment, discussion, marriage, 
prayer, and the like. 

Among other sayings is the following of the Most 
High God : " When there comes God's help and victory, 
and thou shalt see men enter into God's religion by 
troops ; then celebrate the praises of thy Lord, and ask 
forgiveness of Him, He is relentant."' 2 In this Surah he 
foretold the nearness of his death to his nation, and what 
was to take place after him, on the subject of people enter- 
ing by troops and in masses into his religion ; and this 
was realised The adversaries look at it after a long time, 
and they do not deny it And the Most High God said : 
11 A. L. M. The Greeks are overcome in the nighest parts 
of the land ; but after being overcome they shall over- 
come in a few years." 3 And it happened as he said, in 
a war between Chosrau and Caesar, and it became evi- 

1 Kur xciv. 1-4. 3 Jur. ex. 1-3. 8 Kur. xxx. 1-2. 

(40) 



THE PROPHET FORETOLD FUTURE EVENTS 41 

dent to the Arabs that his revelation was true. This 
was incessantly spoken of by them, by their children and 
their women, in their houses, and they were expecting 
it and seeking information concerning it until it was 
noticed by one and all. 

And He said, too : " God promises those of you who 
believe and do right that He will give them the succes- 
sion in the earth as He gave the succession to those 
before them, and He will establish for them their religion 
which He has chosen for them, and give them after their 
fear, safety in exchange/' 1 This is also a prophecy 
which has been fulfilled and realised, and no one can 
find a way to deny it, because God has given to the 
Muslims the succession of the earth, established for them 
their religion, and changed their fear into safety. What 
miracle and what prophecy are truer and clearer than 
these ? 

And He said, too : " He it is who sent His Apostle 
with guidance and the religion of truth, to make it pre- 
vail over every other religion, averse although idolaters 
may be." 2 God and His Apostle peace be with him 
proved right, and his religion has prevailed over every 
other religion, and the adherents of every religion have 
submitted to him. And He said, too, to the Arabs who 
had lingered behind : " Ye shall be called out against a 
people endowed with vehement valour, and shall fight 
them, or they shall become Muslims. And if ye obey, 
God will give you a good reward ; but if ye turn your 
backs, as ye turned your backs before, He will torment 
you with grievous woe. 1 ' 3 

These were men who had fallen away from the Pro- 
phet may God bless and save him to whom he foretold 
that they would fight against the Greeks and the Per- 
sians, unless these become Muslims. This happened as 
it is in the Kur'an, and the onlookers bear witness to its 
veracity. What can the adversaries say about these 

1 Kur. xxiv. 54. 2 Kur. ix. 33. 3 Kur. xlviii. 16. 



42 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

prophecies, and what answers and arguments can they 
find against them when they are realised, fulfilled, and 
spread manifestly East and West ? And if a scoffer holds 
them in contempt, or is not satisfied with them, and is 
resolved to refute and contradict them, he will not des- 
troy except his own soul, will not irritate except his own 
Lord, will not change except his own fate, and will not 
be able to find for us in his own Books except what is 
like them. 

Among indubitable traditions it is related that the 
Prophet may God bless and save him said : " I have 
five names : I am Muhammad; and Ahmad ; and 
Effacing, by means of which God effaces infidelity ; and 
Gatherer, who will gather people ; and Final, that is to 
say, the last of the Prophets." 1 His saying peace be 
with him was fulfilled, and by him God has closed pro- 
phecies, and blotted out infidelity, that is to say, He 
weakened and lessened it, in effacing it from the middle 
and the heart of the earth, and in leaving a shadow of it 
in its ends and borders. It has been related, too, that he 
was on a mountain, which shook under him ; he said to 
it : " Be quiet ; there are only on thee a Prophet, a Just 
man, and a Martyr ; " 2 there were with him Abu Bakr, 
for whose sake he named "Just man," and 'Umar and 
'Uthman, who were martyred after him. And he peace 
be with him would say to his friends : " I have the 
precedence over you to the pool ; " 3 and God took him 
before them. 

And he peace be with him said to Fatimah may 
God be pleased with her in the illness of which he died ' 
" Thou wilt follow me more quickly than any other of my 

1 I.S. i. i. 65. Buk. iv. 194. Mu^L \\. 301. Tab. i, 4, 1788. 

2 Musn. i. 187, 1 88, 189. 

3 Buk. viii. 132. Musi. ii. 283. " The Pool of the Apostle " is that 
of which the Prophet's people will be given to drink on the day of Resur- 
rection (Taj. v. 23). See also Musn. i. 257, 402, 406, 439, 453, 455. Its 
description is in ii. 162. 



THE PROPHET FORETOLD FUTURE EVENTS 43 

relatives." 1 And from his relatives she was the first to 
die after him. And he said to 'Ali, son of Abu Talib 
may God be pleased with him in pointing to his head 
and to his beard: "This will be tinged with that." 2 
Afterwards, 'Ali was affected with a dangerous illness, 
and his relatives said to him " We are anxious about thee 
from this illness/ 1 And he said "I do not fear it, be- 
cause the Apostle of God may God bless and save him 
said to me : ' This will be tinged with that/ " And this, 
too, was realised, because 'Ali recovered from that illness 
and was struck on his head with a sword, and killed. 
And he peace be with him said to 'Uthman: "God 
will clothe thee with a shirt ; and the people will force 
thee to take it off; but do not yield." When 'Uthman 
was besieged, and the people bade him take off the cali- 
phate, he said to them : " The Prophet may God bless 
and save him told me so and so, and for that I shall not 
do what you are saying;" and he was killed. 3 And he 
may God bless and save him said to 'Ammar ibn 
Yasir: "A rebellious band will kill thee." 4 And he was 
killed in a battle between 'Ali and Mu'awiah. And 
Mu'awiah did not deny this tradition, but said : " It was 
not my troops who killed him ; but the man who deceived 
him and made him go forth to fight, he killed him." 

And he too peace be with him said to Zubair ibn 
'Awwam : " Thou shall fight against 'Ali, and in that thou 
shall be unjust towards him." He did so, and 'Ali re- 
proached him. And he may God bless and save him 
said to his wife 'Ayeshah may God be pleased with her 
"The dogs of Haw'ab will bark against thee." When 
she went to Basrah, she heard barking in her night 
journey ; and she asked about the place, and she was 
answered : " It is the watering-place called Haw'ab." She 
remembered his saying peace be with him and she 
said " Verily to God we belong, and verily unto Him we 

1 Musi ii. 341. I.S. ii. ii. 40. *Musn. i. 102. 

3 Cf. I.S. iii. i. 46. Taj. iv. 428. 4 Cf. Mum. ii. 164. 



44 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

return, 1 ' l and repented that she had travelled there. 2 And 
he peace be with him used to say about Hasan son of 
'Ali peace be with both of them "This my son is a 
Sayyid and God will reconcile through him two Muslim 
parties/' 3 

And he peace be with him said : " The earth has 
been collected together for me, and I saw its Eastern and 
Western parts, and the empire of my nation will reach 
the spot from which it has been collected together for 
me." 4 He also seized a pickaxe, in the Day of the Ditch, 
and with it he struck a flint which had defied those who 
were digging ; a spark came out of it, and he peace be 
with him said "In this spark I saw the cities of Chosrau." 
Then he struck another blow, and another spark came out; 
and he said " In it I saw the cities of Caesar. Verily God 
will give them to my nation after me." 5 It has been told of 
him peace be with him that at the end of a journey he 
would worship and perform two rak'ahs? and repair to 
Fatimah may God be pleased with her. He went to 
her after he left the Ditch ; and she began to weep and to 
kiss his mouth ; and he said to her : " O Fatimah, why 
art thou weeping ?" And she said "O Apostle of God, 
I see thee shabby, weary, and clothed in worn out gar- 
ments." And he said "O Fatimah, God has revealed to 
thy father that it is He who places dignity or lowliness in 
every house, be it of clay or of hair ; and He has revealed 
to me that my lowliness will be of short duration. 7 

It has been related that Anas ibn Malik said : " I was in 
a walled garden with the Prophet may God bless and 
save him and I heard a knock at the door ; and he said 
to me 'O Anas, rise and open the door to the comer, 

1 A sentence of the Kurgan (ii. 151) proverbial on the occasion of a 
misfortune. 

3 Tad. i, 6, 3109. 3 Buk. ix. 62. 4 Taj al 'Arus (s.v.). 

5 Cf. Tab. i, 3, 1467-9, and Hish. ii. 73- 

6 Genuflexions at prayer. 

7 Lit. until it reaches where night has reached. 



THE PROPHET FORETOLD FUTURE EVENTS 45 

and declare to him that he will go to heaven, and tell 
him that he will be set over my community after me/ 
And I went, and lo ! I was face to face with Abu Bakr 
may God be pleased with him and I declared to him 
what I had heard, and I went in. Then another man 
knocked at the door, and he said ' Rise and open the 
door to him, and tell him that he will go to heaven, and 
that he will be set over my community after Abu Bakr/ 
I opened the door, and lo ! I was with 'Umar may God 
be pleased with him and I did what I was commanded 
to do. Then I heard another knock at the door, and he 
peace be with him said to me ' Rise and open the 
door to the new comer, and tell him that he will go to 
heaven, and that he will govern the community after 
'Umar;' and lo! I was with 'Uthman may God be 
pleased with him/' 1 

It has been related of him peace be with him that 
he used to say : " The death of this generation shall not 
take place before you have seen people whose faces are 
like two-fold shields." 2 He, too may God bless and save 
him would say : " Which is the most sterile of your 
countries ? " And they answered : " Khurasan/' And he 
said : " It will be a source of blessings for you after me/' 
None of the sons of this 'Abbasid dynasty and of others 
ignores that Abu Muslim 3 started without any doubt that 
victory and Caliphate were due to this 'Abbasid house. 
When he approached Hirah, he sent a messenger to ask 
after the members of the family of Abul- 'Abbas who were 
there. When the messenger saw them, he questioned 
them " Which of you is the son of 'Harithiyah ? " 4 and 

1 Buk. v. 9, 14 ; ix. 60. Musi. ii. 321. Cf. Musn. ii. 165. 

2 Buk. iv. 44, 206. Musi. ii. 505. Musn. \. 4, 7. 

3 The Khurasanian ringleader of the revolution which overthrew the 
Umayyad dynasty in favour of the 'Abbasids. 

4 A feminine gentilic from Harith, the tribe of the mother of Abul- 
4 Abbas Sajfah of the following note. Her father was called 'Ubaidallah 
b. 'Abdallah, b. 'Abdal-Maddan, b. Dayyan al-Harithi. (See Tab. iii. 88, 
and 2499). 



46 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

this was Abul-'Abbas, 1 the Commander of the Faithful 
may God forgive his sins because it was told in the 
Tradition that the first one who would become Caliph 
would be the son of Harithiyah ; this they did not sus- 
pect What is more wonderful is that the Umayyads did 
not doubt that the Caliphate would go to its owners from 
the members of this house, and for that they were killing 
them and tracking them under every stone. Meantime 
the inhabitants of Khurasan were sending messengers 
to them, when they were at Sharat, to strengthen their 
hope. They did not question the justice of their cause, and 
when those of them who have been killed were killed, 
victory dawned in the time decreed by God in traditions 
handed down to us. 

It has come to our knowledge that Abul-'Abbas re- 
ceived the news of the conquest of Yaman and of Sind 2 
in the same day ; and he showed a great sorrow. His 
household said to him : "O Commander of the Faithful! 
it is a day of joy ; what does this sorrow mean? " And 
he said to them "Have you then forgotten the tradition 
transmitted from the Prophet may God bless and save 
him that the man who would conquer Yaman and Sind 
in one day, his death would be near." He had fever on 
that very day, and died some days later. 

It has been related of the Prophet may God bless and 
save him that he wrote two letters begun with the men- 
tion of his name, one to Chosrau and the other to Caesar, 
and called them to Islam. 3 As to Caesar, he put his mis- 
sive on the pillow, and wrote him an answer couched in 
civil language. As to Chosrau, he tore up his missive and 

^bul-'Abbas surnamed Saffah^ the first 'Abbasid Caliph (A.D. 750- 

754). 

2 Sind was conquered by the Muslims in the time of Hajjaj (Yakut, 
Geogr. Diet. iii. 166). Evidently the author refers here to the conquest of 
Sind and Yaman to the 'Abbasid cause (cf. Tad. iii. i. 80) ; about the inva- 
sions of Sind see BeladhorPs Futuh^ pp. 431-446 (edit. Goeje). 

3 Cf. Buk. i. 22 ; iv. 46 ; vi. 9. Musn. i. 243, 263, 305. Must. 
ii. 81. Tab. i, 3, 1571, etc. 



THE PROPHET FORETOLD FUTURE EVENTS 47 

wrote to Phiruz the Dailamite, 1 when still in Yaman, 
bidding him repair to the Prophet may God bless and 
save him seize him, and slay him. And the Prophet said : 
41 my God ! tear up his kingdom ; " and his kingdom was 
torn up, as you see. And Phiruz went and informed the 
Prophet may God bless and save him of the order he 
had received about him. The Prophet may God bless 
and save him said to him : " My Lord has informed me 
that thy lord has been slain. Do not touch me until the 
news is verified by thee." The news reached them, and 
Phiruz became Muslim on account of what he had seen and 
heard ; and he called to Islam the Persians who were in 
Yaman, and they became Muslims. And when 'Ansi, the 
liar, appeared in Yaman claiming the prophetic office, the 
Prophet may God bless and save him wrote to Phiruz 
ordering him to kill him. And Phiruz entered his house 
when he was asleep, bent back his neck, pounded it, and 
killed him. He, too peace be with him said, "The 
Caliphate will not cease to be in the family of Kuraish."" 

And the Prophet may God bless and save him said 
to 'Abbas, his uncle, -who had brought to him his young 
son 'Abdallah may the grace of God be with both of 
them u This boy will be the most learned of my nation 
in religion, and the best versed in the interpretation of 
the Revelation," He prayed over him, spat in his mouth, 
and said : " O my God, make him versed in religion, and 
teach him Interpretation/' And he became as he was 
told, and he was for that called the Habr? 

Among the evidences of the favours which God con- 
fers on the Prophet peace be with him and on all who 
believe in him, is the fact, transmitted by noted and well- 
known traditions, of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab asking water 

1 A governor established by the Sasanian Kings of Persia (Tab. i, 4, 
I ?63 ; 1857-1867. Hish. (i. 67-68) ascribes a similar incident to Badhan, 
about whom see Tab. i, 4, 1851-1853. 

2 Buk. iv. 1 88 ; ix. 68. Musi. ii. 107. 

8 Buk. v. 29, and in <Ilm. Cf. Musi. ii. 351. " Habr" means priest^ 
doctor. See also Musn. i. 266, 269, 315, 335, 359. 



48 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

from Heaven in the name of 'Abbas son of 'Abdul- 
Muttalib may God be pleased with both of them in 
the Year of Drought 1 He took him by the hand, went 
forth, and said : " O my God ! we come to Thee, asking 
water from Thee through the intercession of the uncle of 
Thy Prophet." They did not discontinue until a cloud 
mounted up, which sent a copious rain. 2 

And he used to say to his companions ; " By the One 
who has sent me with truth, although evening finds you 
humble, you will shine so as to become stars by means 
of which people will be guided, and so that it will be 
said : So-and-so has related that he heard the Apostle 
of God may God bless and save him say such and such 
a thing ; " and you see that this happened as he said. 

It has been related, too, that 'Ikrimah, son of Abu 
Jahl, when still idolater, killed in battle a man from the 
Helpers; and the Prophet may God bless and save 
him smiled. A man from the Helpers said to him : 
" Didst thou smile, O Apostle of God, because one of 
thy kin killed one of us ? " He answered : "No ; but I 
smiled because both of them have the same rank in 
heaven. " And 'Ikrimah became Muslim afterwards, and 
was slain in the action of Ajnadain in the country of the 
Greeks. 3 And he peace be with him said to 'Adi, son 
of Hatim : " O 'Adi, become Muslim, and thou wilt be 
safe. O 'Adi, I think that what impedes thee from this 
is the poverty which thou findest in those who are round 
me, and the conspiracy through which men have become 
one band against us. Hast thou seen Hirah ? " 'Ad! 
said " No." And he said : "The time is near when from 
there a woman will travel on a camel without escort to 
make the circuit of the holy house ; and verily, the 

1 Or : of Ashes. In the I7th or i8th year of the Flight there was no 
rain for a long time, and men and cattle perished in great number. 
(Tad. i, 5, 257oetseq.) 

2 Cf. I.S. iii. i. 232. 

3 This battle is described by Tab. 3, 4, 2306-7, etc. 



THE PROPHET FORETOLD FUTURE EVENTS 49 

treasures of Chosrau, son of Hormiz, will be open to us, 
three times. " l And 'Adi added : " I saw myself all that 
the Prophet peace be with him had foretold." 

And Abu Bakr may God be pleased with him said, 
when the Arabs turned from Islam 2 and he sent troops 
against them: "The Apostle of God may God bless 
and save him has promised the Muslims victory and 
conquest from God, and God will make his religion 
prevail over every other religion ; and God will not fail 
in His promise." God has, indeed, confirmed and 
realised the prediction and the saying of the Prophet 
may God bless and save him and every doubt has been 
expelled. 

1 Buk. iv. 207. 

2 This defection is well described by Tab. i, 4 1871 seqq. 



IX. 
CHAPTER VI 

THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE HIM WAS 
AN UNLETTERED MAN, AND THE BOOK WHICH GOD 
BROUGHT DOWN TO HIM AND WHICH HE MADE HIM 
RECITE IS A SIGN OF PROPHETIC OFFICE. 

AMONG the miracles of the Prophet may God bless and 
save him is the Kur'an. It has, indeed, become a 
miracle of meanings, which no writer of books on this 
subject has tried to explain without recognising his 
incompetence and renouncing his discourse and his 
claim to such an explanation. When I was a Christian, I 
did not cease to say in accordance with an uncle of mine 
who was one of the learned and eloquent men among 
Christians, that rhetoric was not a sign of prophetic 
office on account of its being common to all nations. 
But when I waived tradition and customs, and broke 
with the promptings of habit and education, and ex- 
amined the meanings of the Kur'an, then I found that 
the question was as its holders believed it to be. I have 
never met with a book written by an Arab, or a Persian, 
or an Indian, or a Greek, which contained, like the 
Kur'an, unity, praise, and glorification of the Most High 
God ; belief in His Apostles and Prophets ; incitement to 
good and permanent works ; injunction for good things, 
and prohibition of evil things ; exhortation to heaven and 
restraining from hell. Who has ever written, since the 
creation of the world, a book with such prerogatives and 
qualities, with such influence, sweetness and charm upon 
the heart, and with such attraction, felicity, and success, 
while its producer, the man to whom it was revealed, 

(So) 



DIVINE ORIGIN OF THE KUR'AN 51 

was unlettered, not even knowing how to write, and 
having no eloquence whatever ? This is without doubt 
and hesitation a mark of prophetic office. 

Moreover, I found that all books worthy of everlasting 
fame do not fail to deal either with the world and its 
inhabitants, or with religion. As to the books of litera- 
ture, philosophy, and medicine, their aim and purpose are 
not like ours, and are not counted among books of 
revelation and religion. As to the books dealing with 
religion, the first one to name, and the first one which 
came into existence, is the Torah, which is in the hands 
of the People of the Book. Now we find that it deals 
commonly with the genealogies of the Children of Israel, 
their exodus from Egypt, their halts and their depar- 
tures, and the name of the places in which they halted ; 
and it contains, too, high laws and prescriptions which 
dazzle the mind, and which the intellectual capacity and 
power of men are unable to comprehend. What the 
Kur'an contains from these historical events is as a 
reminiscence of the days of the favours of God, as edifica- 
tion, warning, and admonition. As to the Gospel which 
is in the hands of the Christians, the greater part of it is 
the history of the Christ, His birth and His life ; and 
with that it contains good maxims of morality, remark- 
able advices, sublime wisdom, and excellent parables, in 
which, however, there are only short and small portions 
of laws, prescriptions, and history. As to the Book of 
the Psalms, it contains historical events, praises, and 
hymns of high beauty and sublime character, but it does 
not contain any laws and prescriptions. 

As to the Books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, and other pro- 
phets, the greater part of them deals with curses to the 
Children of Israel, with the announcement of the igno- 
miny reserved to them, with withholding favours from 
them, inflicting punishments and chastisements on them, 
and with other kinds of evils. 

The wicked Zindiks have used abuses and invectives 



52 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

against these Books, saying : "The Wise and the Merciful 
could not have revealed such things, nor have ordered 
the prescriptions dealing with the sprinkling of blood on 
the altar, and on the garment of the priests and the 
imams ; with the burning of bones ; with the obscenities 
and garbage mentioned therein ; with persistency in 
anger and wrath ; with the order to desert the houses 
when their walls shine with white, because this would 
be a leprosy affecting these houses ; l with the command 
to a group of Israelities to march one against another 
with unsheathed swords, and to fight with endurance 
amongst themselves, until they had perished in striking 
and beating one another. 2 The Jewish people put this 
into action and did not rebel, and they agreed without 
flinching to endanger their life and perish. People who 
do these things with promptitude are obedient and not 
rebellious, friends and not enemies ; and friendly and 
obedient people do not deserve to be ordered to kill and 
to destroy one another." 

Then Moses peace be with him ordered that they 
should go to two mountains close to each other, and that 
six tribes from them should ascend one mountain, and 
six tribes another mountain, and that some men from 
them 3 should read, one by one, the prescriptions and 
the laws of the Torah and say : " He who transgresses 
these prescriptions, or neglects them, or loses something 
from them, is cursed. " The tribes who were on the 
other mountain answered with Amen to those who were 
cursing in a loud voice. 4 Moses did not leave any of 
them without curses, and even instigated them to curse 
their successors after them ; and they did it promptly, 
obediently, and without opposition. In that they were 
led to discomfiture before they were fixed in their homes, 
and to a general curse before they could perceive the 
odour of victory and happiness. 

1 Cf. Levit xiv. 33 seq. 2 Exod. xxxii. 27-28. 

3 The Levites. 4 Cf. Deut. xxvii. 1 1 seq. 



DIVINE ORIGIN OF THE KUR'AN 53 

Of the same kind is the saying of the Prophet 
Ezekiel, that God told him to shave his head and his 
beard with a sharp and keen sword. 1 Similar is the 
saying of the Prophet Hosea, that God commanded 
him to marry an adulteress woman, who brought him 
forth two children; and ordered him to call one of 
them / will not have mercy and the other They are 
not my partisans, "in order that the Children of Israel 
might know that I will not have mercy on them, 
and will not consider them as friends and partisans." 2 
And Hosea, too, said on behalf of God about the Jews, 
that their mother was an adulteress, and that they were 
born of an illegitimate union. 3 One of the prophets also 
said to the Jews, on behalf of God, that their mother was 
pleased with the males of Egypt. 4 And after a sermon 
to the Children of Israel, Isaiah said that he who told this 
was the Lord whose light is in Zion and furnace in 
Jerusalem. 6 

Not a single letter resembling such things is found in 
the Kur'an, which is interwoven with the Unity of God, 
hymns, praises, prescriptions, laws, history, promises, 
threats, persuasion, and dissuasion ; with prophecies and 
announcements concerning good things congruous to the 
majesty of God, His wisdom, and His might; with the 
consolidation of hope in His forgiveness, His mercy, and 
His acceptance of repentance ; and with other questions 
by which souls are encouraged, and hopes fearlessly con- 
firmed. God, indeed, says in it : " Verily God is forgiving 
and merciful ; and who forgives sins except God ? " 6 
And He says, too, "O my servants who have been ex- 
travagant against their own souls, be not in despair of 
the mercy of God ; verily, God forgives sins, all of them ; 
verily, He is forgiving and merciful/' 7 

1 Ezek. v. i. 2 Hos. i. 2 seq. 

8 Cf. ibid. 4 Cf. Ezek. xvi. 26. 

5 Isa, xxxi. 9. 6 Kur. iii. 129. 

7 Kur. xxxix. 54. 



54 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

It is right to state that this book is a sign of prophetic 
office, because there has not been a book similar to it 
since the beginning of the world, and since the time 
wherein people began to write on parchment. More- 
over, it possesses other striking prerogatives full of light 
and mystery; viz. other books, and especially those 
written by philosophers, have been written by literary 
and scientific men, after meditation and deep thought, 
and after they had been brought up in towns, heard facts, 
and conversed with learned men. But the Prophet 
may God bless and save him was not like them, but he 
was an unlettered Abtahi 1 who had not learned from 
an Egyptian, or a Greek, or an Indian, or a Persian, and 
had not frequented the sittings of literary men in search 
of literature or for reading books; and he produced a 
book which has astonished the linguists, the eloquent 
and ready speakers, and subjugated to him the necks of 
the Arab nation. He said on behalf of the Most High 
God: "Say 'Bring ten Surahs like it devised; and call 
upon whom ye can beside God, if ye do tell the truth.'" 2 
And he said : "Then bring a Surah like it, and call your 
witnesses other than God, if ye tell truth." 3 There was 
no one left in the nation to murmur and to speak, but all 
befriended him, submitted, and yielded. 

The learned men among the protected cults object 
that the Prophet peace be with him should have been 
an unlettered man, because God does not spare His 
prophets the knowledge of writing, this knowledge being 
the best He could bestow upon them, and the least of 
His secrets and miracles He could reveal to them. The 
answer to this objection is that the Most High God has 
qualified each one of them with what He pleased Some 
of them were excellent speakers, such as David ; and 
some of them were lispers and stammerers, such as 

1 A gentilic of Abtah, a clan of the tribe of Kuraish (Hish. i. 163) ; and 
one of the names of the Prophet. 

2 Kur. xi. 1 6. 8 Kur. 11.21. 



DIVINE ORIGIN OF THE KUR'AN 55 

Moses. Some of them gave life to the dead and rent 
asunder the sea, and made springs of water jet out of 
rocks, to the exclusion of others. Some of them were 
literary men and writers, such as Solomon; and some 
were unlettered, such as David, who said in his Psalter : 
" Because I did not know how to write j" 1 this is not a 
dishonour to him, as it is not a dishonour to Christ not 
to have been a dexterous spearer, 2 a skilled archer, a 
surveyor, an architect. And as it is not considered a 
dishonour for Moses not to have had fluency and elo- 
quence of speech, or not to have walked on the air, or 
not to have healed a blind man and a leper, and as it is 
not considered a dishonour for David and others peace 
be with them that God did not take them up to heaven, 
in the way that He did for others, it is not permissible 
to say that God was grudging towards this and that 
prophet in what He had granted to this and that prophet. 
He who says this is insolent and a rebel. 

Do we not see that Simon Cephas, Matthew, and 
Luke, disciples of Christ peace be with them have not 
been traduced because they did not reach the measure of 
Paul in eloquence and rhetoric? Likewise, it is not a 
dishonour to the Prophet may God bless and save him 
to have been an unlettered man, like David. On the 
contrary, God has made of this point a resplendent miracle 
and an argument against the men of his nation who dis- 
believed in him ; because it became evident to the Muslim 
communities and to the members of the protected cults 
that he had not produced the Kur'an as an outcome of 
literary eloquence or earthly wisdom. 

He was peace be with him brief, concise, and slow 
in his speech, and he blamed the loquacious and talkative. 
It has come to our knowledge that 'Ayeshah may God 
be pleased with her would say: "The Prophet may 
God bless and save him did not continue his speech 

1 Ps. Ixxi. 1 5 (Peshitta Version). 

a Lit. " Spear-player," a title of three poets mentioned in Taj. (s.v.). 



56 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

uninterruptedly, as you do; his speech was concisely 
cut short, and you display yours ceaselessly." 1 He went 
one day to speak, but was embarrassed, and became 
silent ; then he said : "This difficulty in speaking fluently 
affects sometimes the prophets. " And he peace be with 
him heard somebody using pompous verbosity of speech, 
and articulating with affectation, and he silenced him; 2 
then he went and said to those who were present : " Be 
natural in your speech, and let Satan fascinate you not ; 
verily, people among you whom I most love, and who will 
be the nearest to me in the day of Resurrection, are those 
who have the best work ; and people among you whom 
I most hate, and who will be the remotest from me in the 
day of Resurrection, are those who have the worst work ; 
verily, I do hate the chatterers, the pretentious, and those 
who indulge in grandiloquence/ 1 

Therefore, the question of his being unlettered, for 
which he has been blamed by the men of the protected 
cults, is not a dishonour nor a discredit to him ; on the 
contrary, it is a proof and an enlightening argument in 
his favour. If a literary and eloquent man had brought 
forth such a book as that I have described it would have 
been a miracle ; what would then be the case if its 
author were a man of the desert, and unlettered ? This 
is a clear proof that God has made him pronounce it, 
and that the Holy Spirit has assisted and directed him 
in it 

1 Cf. I.S. i. ii. 97. Buk. iv. 200. 2 Cf. Musn. ii. 94. 



X. 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE VICTORY OF THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND 
SAVE HIM IS A MARK OF PROPHETIC OFFICE. 

AMONG the miracles of the Prophet peace be with him 
is his victory, which all Muslims have used as an argu- 
ment. I believed formerly, as other Christians believe, 
that victory was a point common to all nations, and that 
what was common was not a sign of prophetic office. 
When I awoke from the intoxication of error, and arose 
from the slumber of indecision, and got rid of the aber- 
ration of tradition, I knew then that the question was 
not as they believed. Because the Prophet may God 
bless and save him came out an orphan, unique, and 
poor, as the Most High God said : " Did He not find 
thee an orphan, and give thee shelter ? And find thee 
erring, and guide thee ? And find thee poor with a 
family, and nourish thee?" 1 And he called all the 
Arabs and all the nations to the belief in the Most High 
God, while people were shooting at him from one bow, 
sneering at him, and stirred against him ; this did not 
deter him, nor did it discourage him, but he preached 
his religion without flinching, and went forward towards 
what God had ordered him, without shrinking. When 
he noticed that they were rejecting his order, thinking 
evil of him, and not entering willingly into the religion 
and the grace of God, he made them enter into it by 
force ; his claim then triumphed, and the Arabs one and 
all submitted to him ; next, miracles and prophecies 
succeeded one another among them, and the new religion 

1 Kur. xciii. 6-8. 
(57) 



58 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

became dear to them, and truth resplendent ; then, after 
their hate and their enmity, their love and attachment to 
him reached what the adversaries see and hear. 

Who has ever claimed such a victory, in the name of 
God, since the creation of the world by God ? a victory 
comprising conditions and good qualities such as call to 
the Creator of heaven and earth, abstraction from this 
world, encouragement for the world to come, prevention 
from associating other gods and helpers with God and 
from committing iniquity and impurity ? a victory which 
was realised in such a decisive and unquestionable way, 
in all the countries and regions of the earth, on sea and 
land, from the extreme Sus l to the deserts of Turkestan 
and Tibet, by means of devotees and deeply pious leaders, 
and by proclamations in the name of the God of Abraham, 
Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the rest of the prophets ? His 
disciples were distinguished by contempt of the world, 
abstinence from its possessions and cares, and self-denial 
in every pleasure and passion ; and were satisfied with 
food strictly sufficient for the maintenance of the body ; 
and had such orders for equality of asseveration and 
right in judicial decisions, that if a believing Muslim had 
killed a member of protected cults, an unbeliever, the 
Muslim would have to be killed, as retaliation and jus- 
tice ; 2 we know with certainty that such a victory 
undoubtedly takes the place of a sign of prophetic office. 

As to the victories of other nations, which they 
oppose to us, if they had relinquished the passions which 
blind and deafen, and discerned their motives, they 
would have known that the victory of Alexander, of 
Ardashir, son of Babak, and of others was not in God, 
nor for God, nor for His prophets, but its aim was solely 
fame, power, and reputation, while the victors were 
either Atheists, 3 or Dualists, or Pagans ; and this cannot 

1 In Morocco (Yakut, iii. 189). 

3 This is against the doctrine of the Musn. ii. 178, 180. The author's 
view is shared by Abu Hanifah. 

3 In Arabic Dahri, i.e. believing in the eternity of matter. 



DIVINE ORIGIN OF THE PROPHETS VICTORY 59 

be compared with the dignity and sublimity of the 
victory of Islam. To this victory there is another 
sufficient and decisive evidence, viz. it cannot fail to 
have emanated either from God or from Satan ; if they 
confess that it is from God, Islam is then true, and they 
ought to accept it and embrace it ; and if they pretend 
that it is from Satan, Satan would then be in agreement 
and not in disagreement with God and His prophets, 
obedient and not rebellious, since he would have helped 
the man who had called to the One and Eternal God, and 
promoted the religion of the man who had ordered fast- 
ing and prayer, prohibited fornication, unbelief, immoral- 
ity, and iniquity, and made the exaltation and glorification 
of God his rallying-cry in fighting, his vanguard in 
attacking, and his armour in charging and thrusting. 
He who believes that Satan would help to make such a 
religion prevail and be maintained has indeed a good 
opinion of him, speaks well of him, and contradicts what 
God and His prophets have said about him. How can 
Satan help a man who calls to such a religion as this in 
which his roots are pulled up, his chances cut off, and 
his followers and disciples utterly destroyed ? 

Some wicked people thought the same thing of the 
Messiah peace be with Him and the Rabbis of the 
Jews said of Him: "This one drives out demons by 
means of the prince of the demons/* But the Christ 
said to them : " Every kingdom which is divided against 
itself shall perish, and shall not stand, and every city in 
which there is disunion and disagreement shall not last, 
and shall not be firm ; if it is Satan who casts out Satan, 
how then can his kingdom and his might last?" 1 And 
the Jews were put to shame. 

This is our argument against those who say of the 
Prophet may God bless and save him what the Jews 
said of the Messiah peace be with Him* Among what 
the Prophet peace be with him related on behalf of 

1 Matt. xii. 24-26. 



60 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

God about Satan is the following saying: "Ay, the 
partisans of Satan, they are the losers." 1 And he said : 
14 Verily the devil is to you a foe, so take him as a foe; 
he only calls his partisans to be the fellows of the blaze/' 2 
And he said : " Go forth therefrom, for, verily, thou art 
pelted, and, verily, upon thee is my curse unto the day of 
judgment." 3 And he said : " I will surely fill hell with 
thee and with those who follow thee amongst them all 
together/' 4 And he said: "O ye who believe, follow 
not the traces of Satan." 5 And he said : " I seek refuge 
in the Lord of men, the King of men, the God of men, 
from the evil of the Whisperer who slinks off." 6 And 
the Prophet peace be with him ordered us to take 
refuge in God from him, in every prayer and at every 
opportune moment by saying: "I take refuge in the 
Hearer and the Knower, from the stoned Satan." 7 

If Satan helps the man who curses him and unveils 
his wickedness to the world, we shall not be secure 
against the fact that all the religions which appeared in 
the name of a Unique God might have been in agreement 
with Satan, and from him. All the nations agree that 
Satan enjoins association of other gods with God, and 
worship of idols and fire; that he favours adultery, 
fornication, and treachery, which are the objects of his 
desire and his suggestions ; that he is an enemy of God, 
and an enemy of His prophets who command the contrary 
of all this. Since God cannot be of the followers of 
Satan, and Satan cannot be of the followers of God, the 
victory of the Prophet is then from God and not from 
someone else. 

1 Kur. Iviii. 20. 2 Kur. xxxv. 6. 

3 Kur. xxxviii. 78-79. 4 ur. xxxviii. 85. 

6 Kur. xxiv. 21. 6 Kur. cxiv. I -4. 

7 This sentence is not found in the Kur'an ; it is perhaps quoted from 
a traditional saying. 



XI. 
CHAPTER VIII. 

THOSE WHO CALLED TO HIS RELIGION AND WITNESSED 
THE TRUTH OF HIS CAUSE WERE MOST HONEST AND 
RIGHTEOUS MEN. 

SOME people have attributed forgery and falsehood to the 
disciples of the Prophet may God bless and save him 
but because they have traduced them, they have sinned, 
and because they have deviated from their right path, 
they have gone astray. I shall narrate from their virtues, 
their asceticism, and their piety some facts that would 
cause such people to think well of them and cease their 
disparagement. 



XII. 

ASCETICISM OF ABU BAKR MAY GOD BE PLEASED 

WITH HIM. 

THE first one is Abu Bakr may God be pleased with 
him. His detachment from the world, his contempt of it, 
and his keeping away from it reached such a pitch, that 
wnen he was called to the Caliphate, which is the most 
exalted office in the world for dignity and the greatest 
for honour, the one which carries with it in the highest 
degree might, majesty, power, pleasure, and security, he 
refused and rejected it, until it was forced upon him. 
Some days after his election he turned to the people, 
crying in a loud voice : " Is there anybody to cancel it ? 
Is there anybody to cancel it ? " When nobody answered 

(61) 



62 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

him, he addressed the people, saying : " My election was 
a surprise ; I only accepted it because I feared divisions ; 
by God, I did not covet it, either in day or in night, nor 
did I ask it from God, either secretly or openly ; I have 
no pleasure in it nor capacity for it" 1 Has anyone 
heard of a man more noble than this, more humble and 
modest, and more lofty in care for heavenly things ? 

His self-restraint and his scrupulousness reached such 
a point that he fixed for himself a monthly allowance of 
sixty dirhams* from the fund of the Muslims. It has 
been said that he asked that this stipend should be taken 
from him and paid back to the fund of the Muslims in 
order that he might spend from his own earnings, as 
others did ; this the Muslims refused, and he said to 
them : " Then I return your Caliphate to you ; by God, 
I shall not hold it except on this condition ; " then they 
agreed. It has come to our knowledge that he may 
God be pleased with him has been seen, some days 
after he had become Caliph, offering his shirt to be sold 
by auction. It has been said to him in his illness : " We 
will call a physician for thee ; " and he answered : "The 
physician saw me." They said "And what did he tell 
thee?" And he said " He told me that God does what 
pleases Him." 3 When his illness became more severe, 
he said " Where is your physician ? Let him divert it if 
he is right ; by the One who has glorified the Father of 
al-Kasim, 4 there is no soul in the earth that I would wish 
to see pass away in preference to my soul, not even the 
soul of this fragile fly ; do you know why ? " They said 
44 No;" and he said " By God, because I fear that short- 
comings should interpose between me and Islam." 

At the time of his death he declared to 'Umar ibnul- 
Khattab may God be pleased with him saying U O 
'Umar, if thou fulfillest my recommendation, thou wilt 
meet with no accident more profitable than death, with 

1 Cf. Suyuti, 70 (edit. Jarret). 2 1.S. iii. i. 132 says 6000 dirhams. 

2 Cf. Suyuti, 82. < I.e. the Prophet Muhammad. 



WITNESSES TO THE TRUTH OF THE PROPHET 63 

which in any case thou wilt surely meet ; but if thou 
neglectest my recommendation, there will be no accident 
with which thou mayest meet worse than this same death, 
which thou canst not avoid" When death was near, he 
declared to 'Umar may God be pleased with both of 
them saying " I have acquired nothing from the fund of 
the Muslims but this young camel on which I laid the 
water which I and others drank, and this maid-servant 
who served me and you, and this mantle." Then he 
spurned the latter with his foot and said " And I have 
given back all that, and I am well and happy." 1 

His piety and justice reached such a point that when 
two men came quarrelling before him, the one letting not 
the other finish his evidence, Abu Bakr restrained him 
several times from that, but he did not desist ; then Abu 
Bakr lifted up his staff, and the man, in parrying it with 
his hand, touched its handle, which broke off; whereupon 
he went away. Abu Bakr may God be pleased with 
him was much afflicted, and said to 'Umar " Would 
that I had never accepted this charge ; and no one de- 
ceived me in it but thee." And 'Umar said " By God, 
this charge is more necessary to thee than thy own ear ; 
by God, we must strike now with sticks, now with 
swords." Then he rose up in the company of 'Umar, and 
went to the house of that man ; and Abu Bakr presented 
the staff to him, and knelt down before him, and said to 
him : " O man, retaliate ; it is more pleasing to me that 
this should be speedily done." The man refused, saying 
14 1 was on the point of coming to thee to ask thee to for- 
give me, because I irritated thee." And 'Umar said to 
the man " Do what he has asked, and absolve him." 
And the man said " O Caliph of the Apostle of God, thou 
art absolved; may God forgive thee/' Then Abu Bakr 
stood up, saying "May God forgive thee as thou hast 
forgiven me, and may He pardon thee as thou hast par- 
doned me." 

l d I.S. iii. i. 136 seqq. 



64 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

And he may God be pleased with him delivered a 
speech and said " I have assumed government over you, 
while I am not the best of you. If I am right, help me, 
and if I fail, strengthen me ; he that is weak among you 
is strong before me, until I have rendered justice to him ; 
and he that is strong among you is weak before me, until 
I have extorted justice from him ; sincerity is an obliga- 
tion, and deceit is a treason ; as long as I obey God, obey 
me ; but if I rebel against Him, I have no right to be 
obeyed by you." 1 

To a man with such detachment from the world when 
possessing it, and to him who spoke in such a way about 
the Caliphate which was imposed upon him, why should 
we attribute acceptance and utterance of falsehood ? 

1 Cf. I.S. iii. i. 129. Tab. I, 4, 1829, and 1845-6. Suyuti, 69. 



XIII. 

ASCETICISM OF <UMAR IBNUL-KHATTAB MAY GOD'S 
GRACE AND PLEASURE BE WITH HIM. 

There is nothing in the world higher than the Cali- 
phate, and nothing lower than a mere pittance. There- 
fore, if the Caliphate comes to a man freely and spon- 
taneously, and he abstains from it, and is content with his 
mere subsistence from it, and satisfied with nakedness and 
poverty, while spreading pebbles under him as a mattress, 
and using his arm as a pillow, and refraining his soul 
from every passion and pleasure, and rejecting and des- 
pising the treasures of Chosrau hidden for thousands of 
years when brought to him, and not stretching his hand 
to a dirham, nor a dinar, nor a pearl, nor a precious 
stone, nor a rich garment, nor a jewel, nor a male-servant, 
nor a slave-girl from them, who in the earth is more 
pious, more modest, and more austere than he ? 

When he had to dispatch an army, he would say : 
44 O men, I owe you what I have engaged myself to do 
the day I assumed government over you : that I should 
not take a dirham from your possessions without paying 
for it ; and if it comes to me, that I should not spend it 
except in the right way ; that I should not detain you 
long, when you have been dispatched ; that I should not 
impose upon you a task beyond your power ; and that I 
should be the father of your family until you come back." 
He would repair to the houses of wives whose husbands 
were absent, and greet them, and being the Commander 
of the Faithful, buy himself their necessary things, and 
bring them the letters of their husbands and dispatch 
their letters to them. 

(65) 5 



66 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

It is related that seeing a wife whose husband was 
absent carrying a jar, ' Umar may God be pleased 
with him took the jar from her and carried it on his 
head until he reached her house. He met an old Christian 
begging and saying " O my God, judge between me and 
the Muslims ; they have taken tribute from me when I 
was young, and they have betrayed me when I became 
old/' And 'Umar said : " Here is 'Umar at thy service/' 
Then he went with haste, filled a sack with flour, and 
called a porter to carry it; then he said to him " No, I 
would rather carry it myself;" and he carried it on his 
head, and brought it to the old man with some money 
that he gave him ; and he granted him a monthly allow- 
ance for his food. 

A basket of sweets had been sent to him, and he said : 
" Has something like it been sent to all the Muslims ? " 
They answered " No." And he said : " There is no need 
for me to have an enjoyment or a food which is not com- 
mon to all the Muslims ; " and he ordered that it should 
be taken away. It has been said to him at the time of 
his illness "We will bring thee a physician;" and he 
said : " If my recovery depended on an anointment of my 
ear, I would not have anointed it ; how good is my Lord 
to whom I am going!" The inhabitants of Damascus 
observed how he alighted from his camel, led it, reached 
a river, sat down, took off his sandals with his own hands, 
and crossed the river; and they said: "We have not 
seen a King in asceticism except this." 

It is related that *Ali ibn Abu Talib may God be 
pleased with him was once working in a garden that he 
had, and he heard a loud voice. And Hasan, son of 'Ali 
peace be with both of them said : " Father, come up, 
and thou wilt see a wonder." It was 'Umar running 
after a camel of the alms-fund which had bolted ; and he 
was dripping with sweat. And 'Ali may God be pleased 
with him said, "This is the quick and clever son of 



WITNESSES TO THE TRUTH OF THE PROPHET 67 

Hantamah, 1 gentle without being weak, and firm without 
being severe. " 

When Hormizan, King of Ahwaz, was brought before 
him, arrayed in his gorgeous garments, he (Hormizan) 
said to the crowd who were looking with amazement at 
him: " Where js the Commander of the Faithful ? " They 
answered: "He is that man who is asleep." He said: 
11 Where are his chamberlains ? " They answered : " He 
has no chamberlains." He said: "Where is his body- 
guard?" They answered: "He is the body-guard of 
himself." He said: "Where are his throne and his 
bolster?" They answered: "His throne is the ground 
and earth, his mattress is the pebbles, and his bolster is 
his hand." And he said to them : " It is by this that you 
have overcome us. You have made light of life and the 
world, and we have loved both of them." 

When the treasures and the precious stones of Chosrau 
were brought to him and poured out in the mosque, he 
showed sorrow ; and it was said to him : " O Commander 
of the Faithful, it is a day of joy;" and he said : "No 
people have had such a conquest without having dis- 
played their strength among themselves." He then sat 
down and began to divide the booty with the palm of his 
hand. His son was sitting aloof like a sheep with a 
broken leg. 2 When he noticed that his father was not 
giving him anything, he said: "O father, it seems that 
thou dost not believe that I have a right to this booty," 
'Umar answered : " Yes, my boy ; but I fear that my 
palm should become broader for thee." One of those who 
were present said : "I will give him what thy palm has 
contained for me, and fill thy palm afresh for me." And 
he did that. And his little daughter took a dirham from 
the booty; he shouted at her, but she did not throw it 

1 Mother of 'Umar and daughter of Hashim, son of Mughlrah (Tab. 
i, 5, 27-28). 

a Proverb meaning " He was quiet and distressed." 



68 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

And 4 Umar may God be pleased with him rose and 
went to her ; and the child put it in her mouth ; but he 
did not cease to press her throat until she ejected it. 
A man gave him two garments, but he sold them, and 
with their price he bought five slaves whom he manu- 
mitted, saying : " The man who prefers two coats to the 
emancipation of these is feeble-minded." 



XIV. 

ASCETICISM OF <ALI IBN ABU TALIB 1 MAY GOD BE 
PLEASED WITH HIM. 

IT is said that some days after *Ali ibn Abu Talib may 
God honour him was made Caliph, he was seen offering 
his sword to be sold by auction, while saying : " Had we 
supper for one night, we would not have sold it," and 
he was of all men the one who most needed it, but 
necessity compelled him to sell it; and he had every 
year much money from the corn of a real estate that he 
possessed. He would empty every day the house of the 
public treasury, sprinkle it with water, and sleep in it, 
saying: "O gold, beguile other than me; the ground 
has become empty for thee, and thou mayst be white or 
yellow." 2 

It is told that at night he had a torn and worn out 
mantle over him. The maid put on him and his family 
a mantle from the mantles of the alms-fund. He disliked 
its soft nap, and said u What is this ? " She answered 
"It is a mantle from -the alms-fund;" and he threw it 
away from himself and said : " You have made us feel 
the cold for the rest of the night." Once when he was 
in his house a man called him ; he went out to him with 
haste, saying " Here I am at your service ! " 

1 Since a special chapter is devoted to <Ali by a courtier of Muta- 
wakkil, it seems that there is some exaggeration in the matter of the 
hatred which some Muslim historians attribute to Mutawakkil against the 
memory of 'AH. 

2 Cf. Taj. ill 335- 



(69) 



XV. 

ASCETICISM OF <UMAR IBN 'ABDUL-'AZiZ, AND OF <AB- 
DALLAH IBN 'UMAR IBNUL-KHATTAB, AND OF SOME 
OTHER PIOUS MUSLIMS MAY GOD BE PLEASED WITH 
ALL OF THEM. 

IF somebody says that the above men were accustomed 
to poverty, and that the only proper thing for them to do 
was what they did, the answer is that it generally happens 
that a man accustomed to poverty becomes extravagant 
in pleasures when coming to a condition of wealth, and 
takes from it the opportunity of doing what had escaped 
him in his early days. So, Mu'awiah, and his son Yazld, 
and the Umayyad Caliphs who succeeded them, lived in 
pleasure and had their satisfaction in everything asso- 
ciated with food, drink, dresses, perfumes, and passion. 
In their government two goats did not butt each other, 1 
and there were not two men to oppose them. An ex- 
ception is to be made in the case of Walid ibn Yazid ibn 
4 Abdul-Malik, who having completely withdrawn the veil 
of shame, thrown modesty away and neglected his charge, 
was beleaguered, and met with the decreed fate. 2 

But this 'Umar ibn 'Abdul-Aziz- may God's grace 
be with him although preceded by many luxurious 
brothers of the world such as those we have mentioned, 
did not indulge in anything of the kind they had done. 
His asceticism and his contemptuousness for the world 
reached such a pitch that after having been the most 
handsome and the best scented man of all his contem- 
poraries, the most elegant and graceful in attire, he 
mounted the pulpit after he had been made Caliph, and 

1 i.e. nobody showed them the slightest opposition. 

2 He was killed. 

(70) 



WITNESSES TO THE TRUTH OF THE PROPHET 71 

said : " By God, I did not desire this office at all, nor did 
I ask it from God secretly or openly ; if there is one who 
does not want me, now is his time." He confirmed this 
saying by the following fact : One of the steps in the 
stairs of his house was demolished ; a relative of his re- 
stored it. But 'Umar may God be pleased with him 
said : " Praise be to God ! It seems that the one who 
did this had envied me for the fact that I would leave 
the world without having put one brick upon another/' 
Then he ordered that it should be demolished. 

The maid brought him hot water on a cold day. He 
said to her : " Wherefrom obtainedst thou this?" She 
answered: "We have heated it where the food of the 
Muslims is cooked." And he said: "Hadst thou not 
brought it by ignorance, thou wouldst not have served 
me any more ; give them the price of the wood." His 
servant bought him a garment for ten dirhams ; but he 
said : "This is too soft, I want one of a lower quality." 
And the servant said: " Before his Caliphate I bought him 
a garment of embroidered silk for seven hundred dinars, 
and he said that he wanted one of a better quality." He 
was once informed that the Umayyads were grieved at 
the manner he used to remove abuses, and he said " I 
wish God had removed all abuses for me, because when- 
ever I remove an abuse a bit is cut off my body, but at 
the leaving of my soul I shall remove the last abuse." 1 
And he said : " I did not lie, ever since I had my reason ; 
a lie dishonours the man who utters it." 

The prefect of Hims wrote to him requesting an in- 
crease of allowance for the expenses of his paper and of 
his lamp-oil, and asking his permission to restore the 
ramparts of the city ; and he wrote to him : "Make thy 

1 The energy displayed by this Caliph for the removal of abuses is 
best illustrated by the following saying reported by Suyuti (p. 361) : "The 
Caliphs are but three Abu Bakr for his waging war on the apostates, 
'Umar b. 'Abdul- 'Aziz for his removal of abuses, and Mutawakkil for his 
revival of traditional doctrine." 



72 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

pen thinner, and render thy speech concise in combining 
two needs in one ; as to the lamp-oil, my recommendation 
is that thou shouldst go in a dark night to the mosque 
without light ; as to the ramparts of the city, thou shouldst 
fortify thy city in justice, and purify its streets from 
iniquity." 

The prefect of 'Irak wrote to him that a great fortune 
was gathered in the public treasury; and he enjoined 
him to increase with it the stipends of the Muslims, for 
their welfare and the welfare of their children. The 
prefect wrote to him that he has done so, and much 
fortune was left ; and he enjoined him to marry young 
men to young women. The prefect wrote to him that 
he has done it, and much fortune was still left ; and he 
answered him that he should encourage the members of 
protected cults to build houses, and to lend them money 
in advance, because 'Umar and the family of 'Umar were 
in no need of anything from it. 1 

It has come to our knowledge that 'Abdallah ibn 
'Umar ibnul-Khattab may God's mercy be with both 
of them liked grapes in his illness; his people found 
him a bunch, and bought it for one dinar. A man came 
asking for grapes, and he ordered that it should be given 
to him ; and they went and bought it back from the man, 
and returned it to him. Another man came asking for 
grapes, and again he gave it to him, and refused to taste 
it. 

It has come also to our knowledge, that when Rabi* ibn 
Khaitham 2 may God's grace be with him became ill 
and was asked if he would call a physician. He answered : 
"I first wanted that, but then I abstained from it and 
said ' Where are 'Ad, Thamud, and Karun ? There is 
much to be said about them. There were physicians 
among them, but none of the attendants or those attended 

1 This story is related by I.S. iii. i. 21 5 of the Caliph 'Umar b. Khattab. 

2 A man with this name occurs in Tab. (3, 4, 2553) as Khuthaim. 
Cf. the remark of Flugel (p. 98) on the text of the Fihrist (p. 225). 



WITNESSES TO THE TRUTH OF THE PROPHET 73 

to was left ; what is then the meaning of a physician 
when nothing can stop death ? ' " 

A man from Syria, who had become governor of 
Basrah, used to deceive the readers of the ur'an in 
enticing them into accepting stipends and gifts from him. 
He related that to an ascetic woman ; and she said to 
him : " O Corruptor of the Readers ! by God, I am 
ashamed to ask an earthly thing from the Possessor of 
the earth, how could I then ask it from a poor servant 
like myself ? " 

One of the Hashimite governors of Kufah heard 
of much asceticism and self-abnegation concerning a 
devotee, and sent him much money; but the man refused 
to accept it. The Hashimite believed that he was one of 
those who hated the Hashimites' coming into power, and 
believed their money to be illicit ; and he wanted to 
punish him. This reached the ears of the man, who 
stood up, performed many rak'ahs, and said : " O Lord, 
they have made me love that from which Thou hast held 
me back, and they have wanted me to do what Thou hast 
forbidden me to do ; take me then to Thee." And they 
found him dead in his hut. 

One of the Caliphs made his pilgrimage, and came to 
an ascetic of Maccah, who, however, did not lift up his 
head to look at him. He offered him much money to 
distribute among people he knew, but the ascetic refused 
to accept it. He asked him to advise him, and the ascetic 
said : " Fear God in the Muslim affairs, the settlement of 
which He has confided to thee, and be content with the 
Kur'an as guide and teacher." 

Such is the asceticism of several kings, princes, and 
men of piety in the Muslim community, who, among the 
kings of the earth and the nations of the prophets, have 
no one comparable and similar to them since the creation 
of the world. Falsehood and lies are not attributed to 
men of this kind ; indeed, the earth embraced them, and 
they fled from it ; it came to them with the beautiful 



74 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

things found on its surface, but they turned their backs 
to it ; it threw open to them the precious minerals of its 
interior 1 and its hidden treasures ; it laid at their feet its 
most subtle traps and its most alluring baits and charms, 
but they did not come near them, and were satisfied with 
tatters and rags and with unpalatable and coarse food. 
Before their conversion to Islam, they were men of 
power, pride, wealth, cattle, flocks, property, and posses- 
sions. I say this in the truth outside which I do not love 
anything, for the sake of which I uphold every saying, 
and outside which I have no hope for any success, If lies 
and falsehood may be ascribed to men who endured so 
much and triumphed so brilliantly over the world, no one 
will be exempt from this suspicion and accusation. 

The disciples of Moses and of Christ peace be with 
them were pious and upright ; no one is ashamed of 
truth, which must be set above everything. But if men 
comparable to those we have mentioned are suspected, a 
fortiori we may suspect a man who did not reach the de- 
gree of their asceticism, and was not tested with the like 
of their hardships and the process of their refinement If 
we must accept the sayings and trust the narrative of 
the disciples of Moses and Christ peace be with them 
who left a net, or abandoned an advantageous affair, or 
renounced a business, or a field, a fortiori we must trust 
a man who owned all the Caliphate, but deemed it more 
despicable than spittle in the river or dung in the sea. 2 

If somebody advances the statement : " Your masters 
endured what you have mentioned for the sake of power 
and dignity," we will rebut it with a similar statement 
and say : " This is the case also with your masters, 
because when they moved from a low and mean estate 
to that in which people obeyed them and sought to be 
blessed by them, and wealthy and influential men 
gathered round them, and had effective orders for men 

1 Lit., " Liver." 

2 Proverb meaning something low, small, and despicable. 



WITNESSES TO THE TRUTH OF THE PROPHET 75 

and money their soul desired dignity, for the sake of 
which they endured hardship and privation. " You know 
what Simon Cephas did to a man who had sold his estate 
and brought him its price in order to ingratiate himself 
with him by means of it ; his reward with him was that 
he was irritated against him, and asked God to kill him 
at once with his wife, because the poor man had not 
brought him all the price, but had kept back something 
for himself and his wife, 1 One is loth to impute avarice 
to the disciples of Christ ; do not impute it then to the 
disciples of Muhammad peace be with him. 

If they say " Although your masters were themselves 
honest and pious, yet we suspect them because their tes- 
timony was for their cousin and for the sake of attracting 
people to his religion/' we will answer " This was also 
the case with your masters ; since the only witnesses of 
Moses and Christ were their cousins." 

If they say " What need have we of the testimony of 
our co-religionists when your Prophet believes in our 
prophets?" we will say " What would you say then 
about the man who had accepted the claims of your 
prophets before the appearance of the Prophet may 
God bless and save him ? " Was he right or wrong ? 
Was he sound-minded or feeble-minded ? Further, be- 
tween the description of the Christ in whom the Muslims 
believe and your Christ there is a great gap ; the Chris- 
tians say that He is eternal, but with us He is not eternal ; 
they relate that He is Creator, but with us He is created ; 
they pretend that He was killed, but with us He is living. 
These are contradictory and not synonymous terms. 

Moreover, there is an obligation on the part of all men 
towards God to seek after truth and to follow it in all 
ages ; and there is an obligation on the part of God 
may His memory be exalted towards men, to confirm 
truth, to make it prevail, and to destroy the arguments 
of those who waver in its acceptance. We do not doubt 

1 Acts v. i seq. 



76 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

that many nations surrounding Egypt and Syria had 
heard, before the appearance of Muhammad may God 
bless and save him the history of Moses and that of the 
rest of the prophets, and their souls were longing for it 
as well as for the history of Christ, and were seeking 
information about them from those they happened to 
meet ; now were those people obliged to accept what 
they were hearing concerning those prophets and to 
believe in it, or not ? If you do not declare its accept- 
ance as necessary, you will disbelieve in every prophet ; 
and if you declare it to be necessary, we will ask " Why 
should it be necessary when those who announced it and 
bore witness to it were either Jews or Christians, and he 
who accepts the saying of his co-religionists and is 
deceived by it, according to your opinion contradicts 
truth and inclines to inaccuracy and falsehood, because 
he has accepted about his prophets the statements of 
their co-religionists and their cousins who did not 
possess either miracles or evidence. If the acceptance of 
such statements was obligatory for those nations, before 
the Prophet Muhammad may God bless and save him 
bore witness to them, the acceptance, therefore, of the 
statements of the companions of the Prophet may God 
bless and save him concerning their master is likewise 
obligatory ; the more so, that the prophets had borne 
witness to him, described his origin and his time, and 
mentioned, for the verification of their statements, what 
the Muslims only can claim. If the Jews set forth, with 
ignorance and pride, a claim to those prophecies which I 
will relate, what will the Christians say who testify that 
God has destroyed the Jews, erased their religion from 
the register of the earth, and declared that He will not 
have mercy on them, nor will He cancel any of their 
lapses, nor will He accept from them any atonement or 
ransom, unless they divert from Judaism and disavow 
their connection with it ? 



XVI. 
CHAPTER IX. 

IF THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE HIMHAD 
NOT APPEARED, THE PROPHECIES OF THE PROPHETS 
ABOUT ISHMAEL PEACE BE WITH HIM AND ABOUT 
THE PROPHET PEACE BE WITH HIM WHO IS THE 
LAST OF THE PROPHETS, WOULD HAVE NECES- 
SARILY BECOME WITHOUT OBJECT. 

THE Most High God does not contradict His promise, 
nor does He belie His words and disappoint the man 
who puts his trust in Him. He had announced to 
Abraham peace be with him and Hagar God's mercy 
be with her clear and joyful messages, which we do 
not see fulfilled and realised except by the appearance of 
the Prophet may God bless and save him. Indeed, to 
Hagar messages have been announced such as no wife of 
ancient men can claim the like of them, after the pure 
and the virgin Mary, mother of the Christ peace be 
with him. Moreover, to Mary peace be with her the 
Christ was announced once only, while to Hagar Ishmael 
was announced twice ; and to his father peace be with 
him he was announced several times. God willing, I 
will explain this in its due place. 

What the Most High God revealed to Abraham 
peace be with him exclusively about Ishmael, is His 
saying through Moses peace be with him in the tenth 
chapter of the first Book of the Torah. God said there 
to Abraham peace be with him " I have heard (thy 
prayer) * about Ishmael ; I have blessed him, increased 
him, and magnified him exceedingly : twelve princes 

1 In the Biblical quotations of the following pages the words between 
parentheses are missing in the Syriac Version. 

(77) 



78 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation." 1 
This is in the version of Marcus, the translator (tarja- 
mari) ; but in the Torah, translated by seventy-two 
Jewish priests, it is said "He will beget twelve nations." 2 
No promises and no announcements about anyone could 
be greater than the saying of the Most High God: "I 
have blessed him, increased him, and multiplied him ex- 
ceedingly. " Less than this coming from the Most High 
God is great, and not so much as this is sublime, be- 
cause the measure that God considers as considerable 
and exceedingly great, there is no measure greater than 
it. This is a rebuke and a rebuflf to that rude and im- 
pudent man who found fault with Ishmael and derided 
him, because God said about him : " He will be a wild 
ass of men." I will explain it in this chapter as a re- 
buff against that blockhead and dolt. 3 

Moses peace be with him had already prophesied 
with a prophecy similar to this in the ninth chapter of the 
first Book, saying that when Hagar fled from Sarah, the 
angel of God appeared to her and said : " O Hagar, Sarai's 
maid, whence comest thou, and where art thou going ? " 
(Hagar answering him) said : " I flee from my mistress 
Sarai." The angel of the Lord said unto her " Return 
to thy mistress and submit to her ; because I will multi- 
ply (thy posterity and) thy seed, that it shall not be 
numbered for multitude, 4 and behold thou shalt be with 
child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name 
Ishmael, because God hath heard (thy affliction) and thy 
humility ; and he will be a wild ass of men, and his hand 

1 Genes, xvii. 2O. 2 Sept., d>#eAca C&VTJ yevvrjaci. 

3 Al-Kindi said to his opponent with reference to an unnamed man : 
" Including a person whom thou knowest and whose name I should tremble 
to write," Apology, p. 89 (edit. Muir). The person alluded to by the 
Christian apologist seems to have been Ishmael, the wild ass. The word 
l air is used in many derisive senses, and in Mesopotamia it means in our 
days " pudenda hominis." 

4 The Arabic lacks " And the angel of the Lord said to her " found 
in Syriac. 



PROPHECIES ABOUT ISHMAEL 79 

will be over all, and the hand of all (stretched) to him, 1 
and his abode shall be on all his brother's frontiers." 2 
This is the second announcement uttered face to face by 
the angel to Hagar peace be with her on behalf of the 
Most High God ; and he told her that God would make 
her son's hand the higher, and the hand of all others the 
lower with regard to him. We have not seen that this 
point of the prophecy of Moses peace be with him 
was fulfilled and realised, except after the appearance of 
the Prophet Muhammad may God bless and save him. 

And Moses said, in the thirteenth chapter of the first 
Book, that God said to Abraham peace be with him 
" And also of the son of thy bondwoman will I make a 
great nation, because he is from thy seed." 3 This is the 
third prophecy about Ishmael peace be with him. After 
this saying, Moses said " And when Abraham rose up 
in the morning (he took out of his habitation Hagar and 
his child, in conformity to the wish of Sarah, and went 
to where God had ordered him about her; and he gave 
her food and provisions, and put the child on her shoulder, 
and sent her away on her journey. And Hagar depar- 
ted) 4 and wandered in the wilderness (called) Beersheba ; 
and her water was spent ; 5 and she cast the child under 
one of the shrubs, and went off 6 at a distance of a bow- 
shot 7 in order that she 8 might not see the death of her son. 
And for that she was weeping and grieved. And God 
heard the voice of the lad, and the angel of God called to 

1 i.e. soliciting favour from him. These words explain the meaning of 
" a higher and a lower hand " of the following lines. The higher or upper 
hand is that which gives, and the lower hand is that which receives. A 
saying to this effect on the part of the Prophet is reported by Bukhari and 
Muslim. See also Kastallani's Irs had iii 30-32, and Ibn Hanbal's Musn. 
ii. 67. 

3 Genes, xvi. 8-13. 3 Genes, xxi. 13. 

4 All this is somewhat paraphrastic. 

5 The Syriac adds u from the water skin." 

6 Syr. adds " against (him)." 1 Syr. adds " because she said." 
8 Syr. "I." 



8o BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

Hagar out of heaven, and said 'What aileth thee, 
Hagar ? Let thy heart rejoice, for God hath heard the 
voice of the lad j 1 arise, lift him up, and take hold of him, 
for (God) will make him a great nation.' And God 
opened her eyes, and behold ! 2 a well of water ; and she 
crawled and filled the bottle (from it), and gave the lad 
drink from it. And God was with her and with the lad 3 
until he grew ; and his abode was in the wilderness of 
Paran, and he applied himself to learn archery." 4 

This prophecy of Moses peace be with him about 
Ishmael and his mother Hagar is similar to the saying 
of the angel Gabriel to the virgin Mary: "Our Lord is 
with thee, O blessed among women/' 5 The Christians 
have been deluded by this saying, and have said that God 
was dwelling in her, because Gabriel said to her " Our 
Lord is with thee ; " but Moses peace be with him said 
the same thing about Hagar, that " God was with her 
and with the lad until he grew/' 

These are four messages exclusively about Ishmael 
peace be with him. Two of them came down to Abraham 
and two to Hagar. Let that stupid and feeble-minded 
man find us messages more numerous, more resplendent 
and genuine than these from the Most High God, which 
have followed one another over parents for the sake of 
their child, since the beginning of the world. 

The messages delivered by God to Abraham con- 
cerning all his posterity and children are also two ; one 
of them is the saying of the Most High God to Abraham, 
when he offered his son for sacrifice : " Because thou 
hast done this deed,* and hast not withheld thy son, thine 
only son, by myself do I swear that I will bless thee, I 
will multiply thy posterity (and I will make them) as the 
number of the stars of the heaven, and as the sand of the 

1 Syr. adds " where he is." 2 Syr. " and she saw." 

8 The translator misunderstood the Syriac corroborative which only 
means " with the lad." 

4 Genes, xxi. 14-21. 5 Luk. i. 28. 

6 Syr. " Order, message." 



PROPHECIES ABOUT ISHMAEL 81 

sea shores ; and thy children shall inherit the countries 
of their enemies ; and in them l shall all the nations of 
the earth be blessed. " 2 The Torah says, too : " Abraham 
said i Behold I am dying, and I have no child, and no 
successor; and my heir is my servant, 3 and one born in 
my house/ Then the Lord said to him 'This shall not 
be thine heir ; 4 but he 5 that shall come out of thine own 
loins shall be thine heir. Get out 6 and look toward the 
stars of heaven ; if thou art able to number them, thou 
shalt number also thy children.'" 7 

The first four prophecies are exclusively about 
Ishmael, and Ishmael has, too, a share with Isaac and 
his other brethren in the last two; these make six 
peremptory prophecies and messages about him. In 
spite of this, that rude Garmecite, 8 wicked and ignorant, 
pretends that Ishmael is not counted among the children 
of Abraham peace be with him. The above words were 
realised and fulfilled by the appearance of the Prophet 
may God bless and save him. Prior to that, all Christians 
and Jews knew that the children of Abraham, known by 
his name, and related to him, 9 did not cease to be among 
various nations of the earth. A company of them were 
in Egypt as slaves to Pharaohs and to Copts, treated 
rudely and oppressed ; and a company of them were in 

1 Syr. "in thy seed." a Genes, xxii. 16-18. 

3 All this is somewhat paraphrastic. 

4 Genes, xv. 2-3. 5 Syr. " thy son." 
8 Syr. " And He made him get out and said to him." 

7 Genes, xv. 4-5. The last words are somewhat paraphrastic. 

8 The Kamus explains this word as being a relative adjective referring 
to \h&Jaramikah about whom see Tab. i, 2, 827. The word seems to me 
to be the Syriac relative adjective " Gramkaya " from Beit Garmai, country 
bordering the ancient Adiabene, on the east bank of the Tigris and the 
two Zabs. 

9 I.e. were called " Ishmaelites." Syriac writers even before the time 
of Muhammad called the Arabs by this name. See Q\\rNarsai Homiliae^ 
i. pp. 115-117; and our Sources Syriaques^ i. pp. in, 123, 144, and ii. 
p. 174. 

6 



82 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

the direction of the deserts and in the Hijaz, amidst hard- 
ships and wars. Those who dwelt in Egypt went, later, 
to Syria where war was waged against them morning 
and evening by those who were around them. Then 
they were not long in being scattered, banished, stripped 
of their power, deprived of their Kingdom, and dispersed 
in different regions and countries of the earth. Bands of 
black men ] and waves of white men, molested them until 
the Prophet may God bless and save him appeared ; 
then after a long time all the prophecies were realised 
and the messages fulfilled, and the children of Ishmael 
triumphed over those who were around them, pulverised 
them, scattered them in the air, as the prophets peace 
be with them had foretold, and ground them. They 
spread in all the regions of the earth like young locusts, 
and in competing with other nations they became as 
their life-blood, 2 and excelled them at the measure of 
the distance of the Pleiades from the earth, in India, 
Abyssinia, extreme Sus, 3 Turkestan, and Khazar; 4 they 
reigned, too, in East and West, and where the waves of 
the Mediterranean and Euxine seas 5 collide. The name 
of Abraham appeared then in the mouth of all nations, 
morning and evening, and there is at present no man, no 
woman, no male slave, no female slave, rich or poor, 
happy or unhappy, on sea or on land, who does not 
believe in One God, glorify the God of Abraham, and 
seek His protection. 

As to Judaism, it had appeared only in one section of 
mankind. As to Christianity, although it appeared in a 
great and glorious nation, yet in the land of Abraham 

1 Lit. " red." The Taj. says that the two epithets " black and white " 
comprise all mankind, the red type being included in the word " white." 

2 Many ancient philosophers believed the soul to reside in the blood ; 
cf. Aristotle, De amma I, 2 ; cf. Levit. xvii. 18. 

3 In Morocco. 

4 Country corresponding approximately with the ancient Hyrcania ; 
see Yakut (ii. 436). 

5 Lit. of the two seas : Bahrain. 



PROPHECIES ABOUT ISHMAEL 83 

and his wife Sarah, and their forefathers, and in the land 
of Hagar and her fathers, it had not wielded the sceptre 
and held absolute power and sway such as those 
vouchsafed by God to their inhabitants through the 
Prophet may God bless and save him. 

In favour of what I have claimed I shall now bring 
testimonies from the prophets, but I should first begin 
by refuting that rude Garmecite who belittled Ishmael 
and blamed him on account of the description given him 
by God. Were it not for his stupidity and the weakness 
of his intelligence, he would have known that the words 
of revelation have meanings and mysteries understood 
only by people who are far advanced in science. The 
Torah said that God " became a lion and devoured the 
children of Israel ; " 1 it is said, too, in the Torah, that 
"God is a burning fire;" 2 and God is neither fire nor a 
ravenous beast ; but these are taken as illustrations for 
wrath, irritation, punishment, and revenge. The Christ 
called the head of His apostles, the one whom he ordered 
to shepherd his community, Simeon the stone (Peter) ; and 
He called all His nation Sheep; and He called Himself 
Lamb of God. If one were tempted to answer that stupid 
and weak-minded man, one would tell him that a wild ass 
is stronger and more powerful than a lamb which is 
devoured by the wolf, and coveted by the dog and the 
fox. There is indeed no animal among quadrupeds 
weaker and less powerful than it. If that ignorant dolt 
and his followers return to the interpretation of these 
names we also will begin to interpret and say : 

The interpretation of the wild ass comprises many 
meanings, one of which is that God may He be blessed 
and exalted indicated by this name that Ishmael peace 
be with him would dwell in dry and arid lands, protect 
his consort, and be warlike and jealous, in the same way 
as the wild ass dwells in the deserts, castrates the male 
organ from his young ones out of jealousy, and attacks 

xxiv. 9. 2 Exod. xxiv. 17. 



84 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

vigorously herds pertaining to other males, not ceasing 
to fight against the male in kicking it and biting it, until 
it has conquered its female and its herd. When it has 
got them, it keeps them and protects them, and defends 
their young ones, and does not eat them as lions and 
wolves do ; these seek victory only to devour and to 
gulp, but wild asses seek victory from the love of action 
and sport. 

Further, Go'd called Ishmael by this name in order that 
no means may be found for denying him peace be with 
him a dwelling in the deserts, and in order to signify 
that God had placed him in these deserts for a great and 
beautiful purpose, viz. that He, the Most High, wished to 
preserve his genealogy and to keep intact his freedom, 
in order that he might not have that slavery among the 
nations that others had, nor be expatriated and torn 
away as others have been. 

Let that miserable idiot understand these meanings, 
and not vilify the one about whom God may He be 
blessed and exalted said that "He has blessed him 
and magnified him exceedingly. " He who belittles him 
that God has magnified is like the man who magnifies 
him that God has belittled : suffice it to say that the one 
who does this does it to his shame and his confusion ! 

The wild ass has also the meaning which the Persians 
and other peoples have given to it ; they called a man 
warlike, courageous, and skilled in the art of fighting 
"Gor;" hence Bahrain Gor got his surname; and Gor 
means a wild ass ; through it the inhabitants of Tabaris- 
tan have been called Goriyah, and for the same reason a 
bold and courageous man is called Gor-mardan, i.e. the 
wild ass of men ; likewise the Arabs call a courageous 
man "Ram of the tribe" and compare him with the 
stallion and the male camel kept for breeding, and with 
other animals. 



XVII. 
CHAPTER X. 

THE PROPHECIES OF THE' PROPHETS ABOUT THE PRO- 
PHETMAY GOD BLESS HIM AND THEM, AND SAVE 
HIM AND THEM. 

I HAVE already mentioned four prophecies about Ishmael 
peace be with him which contain testimonies to the 
truth of the religion of the Prophet may God bless and 
save him which only the ignorant ignore and the stupid 
deny. If the Prophet may God bless and save him 
had not been sent, these prophecies would have been 
vain and inexplicable. I shall mention from other pro- 
phecies of the prophets peace be with them those 
which are as clear as something seen with one's own 
eyes. Some of them have indeed described his time, his 
country, his mission, his followers, his Helpers^ and have 
clearly mentioned him by name. 

The fifth prophecy alluding to him and pointing to 
his prophetic office and to his truth, is the saying of 
Moses peace be with him to the children of Israel, 
found in the eleventh chapter of the fifth and the last 
Book of the Torah : " The Lord your God will raise up 
from the midst of you, and from your brethren, a Pro- 
phet like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken." 1 And 
the Torah said, in this same chapter,' in confirmation and 
explanation of this saying, that the Lord said to Moses 
peace be with him " I will raise them up a Prophet 
from among their brethren, like unto thee ; and whoso- 
ever will not hearken unto my words which that man 
shall deliver in my name, I will avenge myself on him." 2 
And God has not raised up a prophet from among the 

1 Deut. xviii. 15. 2 Deut.. xviii. 18-19. 

(85) 



86 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

brethren of the children of Israel, except Muhammad- 
peace be with him ; the phrase " from the midst of them " 
acts as corroboration and limitation, viz. that he will be 
from the children of their father, and not from an avun- 
cular relationship of his. As to the Christ peace be 
with Him and the rest of the prophets may God bless 
them they were from the Israelites themselves ; and he 
who believes that the Most High God has not put a 
distinction between the man who is from the Jews them- 
selves, and the man who is from their brethren, believes 
wrongly. 

The one who might claim that this prophecy is about 
the Christ peace be with Him would overlook two 
peculiarities, and show ignorance in two aspects; the 
first is that the Christ peace be with Him is from the 
children of David, and David is from themselves, and 
not from their brethren ; the second is that he who says 
once that the Christ is Creator and not created, and then 
pretends that the Christ is like Moses, his speech is contra- 
dictory, and his saying is inconsistent. Similarly wrong 
would he be who would pretend that this prophecy is 
about Joshua, son of Nun, because Joshua is not counted 
among the prophets, and has delivered nothing on behalf 
of God to the children of Israel, but what Moses peace 
be with him had already delivered, and also because he 
is from themselves, and not from their brethren. 

Therefore, the prophet that the most High God "has 
raised up from their brethren " is Muhammad may God 
bless and save him and whosoever contradicts him God 
will wreak vengeance upon him. You see already dis- 
tinct traces of vengeance upon those who have rejected 
him, and clear marks of grace upon those who have 
accepted him. 

And Moses said in the twentieth chapter of this 
Book : " The Lord came from (Mount) Sinai, 1 and rose 
up from Seir, and appeared from Mount Paran, with 

1 In Arabic " Sinln," as in the Kur'an xcv. 2, 



PROPHECIES OF MOSES 87 

tens of thousands of saints at His right hand. He gave 
them (power), and made them to be loved by nations, 
and called blessings on all His saints." 1 Paran is the 
land which Ishmael peace be with him inhabited ; for 
this reason God had previously mentioned it in the 
Torah, saying " And he learned archery in the wilder- 
ness of Paran.*' 2 All people knew that Ishmael dwelt in 
Maccah, and his children and successors who are in it 
and around it know the abode of their grandfather, and 
do not ignore his land and his country ; and " the 
Lord " rose up from Paran ! If this is not as we have 
mentioned, let them show us "a lord " who appeared 
from Mount Paran ; and they will never be able to do 
so. The name "lord" refers here to the Prophet 
may God bless and save him ; it is a word applied by 
Arabs and non-Arabs to the Most High God, or to men, 
His servants, as if you would say " the lord of the house" 
and as the Syrians call the man whom they wish to 
exalt : Man = ''my lord," "my master," war meaning in 
Syriac "lord." 

1 Deut. xxxiii. 2-3. 2 Genes, xxi. 20-21. 



XVIII. 

THE PROPHECIES OF DAVID ABOUT THE PROPHET MAY 
GOD BLESS AND SAVE BOTH OF THEM. 

AND the prophet David peace be with him said in the 
forty-fifth psalm : " Therefore God hath blessed thee for 
ever ; gird then thy sword, O giant, because thy majesty 
and thy Hamd are the conquering majesty and Hamd. 1 
Ride thou on the word of truth and on the course 2 of 
piety, because thy law and thy prescriptions are associated 
with the majesty of thy right hand ; 3 and thy arrows are 
sharp, and the people fall under thee." 4 We do not 
know anyone to whom the features of girding a sword, 
sharpness of arrows, majesty of the right hand, and fal- 
ling down of people under him, are due, except the 
Prophet may God bless and save him who rode on 
the word of truth, humbled himself before God in de- 
votion, and fought the idolaters until the true faith 
prevailed. 

And David peace be with him said in the forty- 
eighth psalm : " Great is our Lord, and He is greatly 
Mahmud ; and in the city of our God and in His moun- 
tain, there is a Holy One and a Muhammad;* and 
the joy hath come to thf vvhole earth. " 6 This prophecy 

1 This is more in accordance with the East Syrian version which 
repeats twice the word " glory." 
3 Syr. " meekness." 

3 Syr. " Thy law is in the fear of thy right hand." 

4 Ps. xlv. 2-5. 

5 A not very natural rendering of a Striae sentence meaning " In the 
city of our God and in His holy and glorious mountain." Strictly speak- 
ing, however, it can have the meaning given to it by the author. See 
below, p. 131. 

8 Ps. xlviii. 1-2. 

(88) 



PROPHECIES OF DAVID 89 

of David peace be with him is clearness and explicit- 
ness itself which cannot suffer any ambiguity. David has 
indeed mentioned the Prophet by name. 

And David peace be with him said in the fiftieth 
psalm : " God hath shown from Zion a Mahmud crown. 
God then shall come and shall not be idle ; and fires 
shall devour before Him, and they shall be very tempes- 
tuous round about him." 1 Do you not see that the pro- 
phet David peace be with him does not strip from any 
of his prophecies the mention of Muhammad or Mahmud, 
as you read it yourselves ? His saying " a mahmud 
crown " means that he is a Muhammad and a mahmud 
head and leader. The meaning of " Muhammad/* <c Mah- 
mud," and "Hamid" is linguistically identical. The 
example of "crown" is given to mean lordship and 
leadership. 

And he said, too, in the seventy-second psalm, in con- 
firmation and corroboration of the preceding prophecies : 
"He shall have dominion from sea to sea, and from the 
rivers unto the end of the earth. They that dwell in the 
islands shall bow before him on their knees, and his 
enemies shall lick the dust. The kings of Tarshish and 
of the isles shall bring him presents, and the kings of 
Sheba and the kings of Seba shall offer gifts. All kings 
shall fall down before him, and all nations shall (obey 
him and) submit to him. 2 For he shall deliver (the per- 
secuted and) the needy from him who is stronger than 
he, and he shall look after the weak who has no helper. 
He shall have mercy for the weak and the poor, and 
shall save their souls from harm and violence ; and 
precious their blood shall be in his sight. And he shall 
remain, and to him shall be given of the gold of the 
countries of Sheba ; and prayer shall be made for him 
continually, and daily shall he be blessed, like a great 
quantity of corn, on the surface of the earth ; and he 
shall make his fruits grow on the top of the mountains, 

1 Ps. 1. 2-3. 2 Syr. " Shall fear," or : " worship him." 



90 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

like those which grow on the Lebanon; and he shall 
make something like the grass of the earth to shoot up 
in his town ; and his memory shall endure for ever ; his 
name exists before the sun, and all nations shall be 
blessed by him, and all of them shall give him Hamd" 
(or : " call him Muhammad"). l 

This is an efficient and sufficient prophecy, in which 
there is no ambiguity and difficulty. We do not know 
anyone who reigned from sea to sea, and from the 
rivers which God has mentioned in the Torah : Tigris, 
Euphrates, Pison and Gihon, and before whom kings 
bowed on their knees, and whose enemies licked dust, 
and to whom the kings of Yaman brought presents, 
except the Prophet may God bless and save him and 
his nation, and except Maccah and the traces of Abraham's 
steps which it contains.' 2 And we do not know any- 
one who is blessed and prayed for continually, except 
Muhammad may God bless and save him in the 
following saying of the believing nations : " O God, pray 
over Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, and bless 
Muhammad and the family of Muhammad." Which sign 
is more obvious and which prophecy is clearer and more 
luminous than this, especially when the prophet David 
peace be with him closed his prophecy by saying " And 
all nations shall be blessed by him and call him Mu- 
hammad ? ; " and the meaning of Muhammad and Mahmud 
is one. 

And David peace be with him said in the hundred 
and tenth psalm : "The Lord is at thy right hand, and 
He shall strike through kings in the day of His wrath ; 
(He shall weaken the prop of the kingdom), and shall 
judge among them in justice. 3 He shall multiply the 

1 Ps. Ixxii. 8-12, i.e. " shall praise him.' 1 

3 Allusion to the traditional Makam IbrdHim containing the " stone 
which, yielding under the weight of Abraham, bears the impression of his 
foot. It is situated close to the Ka'bah. 

8 The Syriac is : " He shall judge the Gentiles." 



PROPHECIES OF DAVID 91 

(dead bodies) and the corpses, and shall cut off the heads 
of many people in the earth, and shall drink in his journey 
from (the water of) the valleys ; therefore, His head shall 
be lifted up (to the heights)." l This is also a description 
as clear as something seen with the eye. Who is the 
one at whose right hand the Lord was, who judged in 
justice, who cut off heads, and who multiplied dead 
bodies and corpses, except him may God bless and save 
him and his nation ? 

And he said, too, in the hundred and forty-ninth 
psalm : " For the Lord hath taken pleasure in His people, 
and hath beautified the poor with salvation ; let the saints 
be strong in glory, and sing to Him in their beds, and 
praise God with their throats; because in their hands is 
the two-edged sword, to execute vengeance upon the 
heathen, and punishment upon the nations to bind their 
kings with chains, and their exalted ones (and nobles) 
with fetters, to bring them to the written (and decided) 
judgment. Hamd to all His saints." 2 Do you not see 
may God guide you that these peculiarities refer ex- 
clusively to the Prophet may God bless and save him 
and to his nation ? It is he who has the two-edged 
sword with him, it is he who with his nation has executed 
vengeance upon the giants of Persia and the tyrants oi 
the Greeks and others, and it is he whose followers have 
bound the kings with chains, and conducted their nobles 
and their children in chains and fetters, and who sing tc 
God in their beds, and glorify Him morning and evening, 
and continually, in saying: "God is supremely great 
and much praise be to God." 

And he peace be with him said in the hundred anc 
fifty-second psalm which is a psalm attributed to Isaiat 
peace be with him mentioning the Arabs and theii 
country, and not leaving any room for reply and excuse 
" Let the wilderness and the cities thereof rejoice, anc 

1 Ps. ex. 5-7. a Ps. cxlix. 4-9. 



92 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

let (the land of) Kedar become meadows. Let the in- 
habitants of caves sing, and shout forth from the tops of 
the mountains the Hamd of the Lord, and declare His 
praises in the islands. For the Lord shall come forth as 
a mighty man, and as a man of war, stirring up for pride. 
He shall rebuke, shall be mighty, and shall kill His 
enemies." 1 To whom does the wilderness belong, O my 
cousins may God guide you except to this nation? 
And who is Kedar, except the descendants of Ishmael 
peace be with him who inhabit caves, and give Hamd 
to the Lord and declare His praises at daybreak and at 
midday ? And who is he who rebuked, became mighty, 
and killed his enemies, except Muhammad may God 
bless and save him and his nation ? As to the meaning 
of David's saying "The Lord shall come forth/' we have 
demonstrated above that the name " Lord " refers to men 
of high standing and noble. 

1 Isa. xlii. 11-13. These verses with Exod. xv. 1-21 and Deut. xxxii. 
1-43 are incorporated with the psalter in the East Syrian or Nestorian 
breviary (Breviarium Chaldaicum, Paris, 1886, vols. i., ii., iii., pp. 332-337). 



XIX. 

THE PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH ABOUT THE PROPHET MAY 
GOD BLESS AND SAVE HIM. 

HE said in the second chapter of his book : " The Lord 
will be mighty in that day and lifted up alone over all the 
pine-trees of Lebanon that are high and elevated, and 
over all the oak-trees which are in the land of Bashan, 
and over all the high mountains, and over every hill that 
is lifted up, and over every lofty tower, and over every 
inaccessible mountain, and over all the ships of Tarshish, 
and over all pleasant and handsome imagery. He will 
destroy the idols in an open destruction, and (people) 
will hide in the caves of the rocks and in the holes of the 
earth, from the terror of God the Most High, and from 
the glory of His Hamd." l Isaiah is in accordance with 
the prophet David peace be with both of them who 
said : " Thy majesty and Thy Hamd are the conquering 
Hamd." 2 It is as if these two prophecies were two rays 
coming from a single reflecting centre. As to the moun- 
tains and trees, they mean men of high and low estate, 
and kings ; instances for this are numerous in their 
Books. 

In the third chapter, he said on behalf of the Most 
High God : " I will lift up an ensign to the nations from 
a remote country, and hiss unto them from the ends of 
the earth, and they will come swiftly and quickly ; they 
will not be weary, nor will they stumble ; they will not 
slumber, neither will they sleep ; they will not loose the 
girdle of their loins, and the latchet of their shoes will 
not be broken. Their arrows are sharp, and their bows 

1 Isa. ii. 12-19. 2 Cf. supra, p. 88. 

(93) 



94 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

are bent ; and their horses' hoofs are like flint in solidity, 
and their wheels are as swift as whirlwinds ; and their 
roaring is like that of lions, and like that of a young lion 
roaring for a prey, and no one can escape him. In that 
day he will overtake them like the roaring and the 
colliding waves of the sea ; and they will look unto the 
earth, and they will only see distress and darkness ; 
and the light shall be darkened from the dust of their 
masses." 1 

This is the saying of the Most High God. And the 
children of Ishmael peace be with him the nation of 
the Prophet may God bless and save him are those 
for whom God hissed ; and they came from their country 
with haste, without weariness and sloth ; their arrows 
were sharp, and their bows bent ; the hoofs of their 
horses were like rock and flint, and their roaring was like 
the roaring of lions ; it is they that had prey from East 
and West, and no one could escape them. The giants 
became like lambs with them, and dust was stirred by 
their onslaught, while paths and defiles were too narrow 
for them. 

And he peace be with him said in the fifth chapter, 
in explanation of his preceding prophecies : " The nation 
which was in darkness saw a resplendent light, and those 
that were in deep darkness and under the shadow of 
death, light hath shined upon them. Thou hast multi- 
plied partisans and followers of whom thou wast proud. 
As to them, they joy in thy hands, like those who joy in 
the day of harvest, and like those who joy at the division 
of spoils. Because thou hast broken the yoke which had 
humbled them, and the staff which was on their shoul- 
ders ; and thou hast bruised the rod which had enslaved 
them, as thou hadst broken those whom thou didst break 
in the day of Midian." 2 

This resembles the description which the Most High 
God gave in the Kur'an about the Prophet may God 

1 Isa. v. 26-10. 2 Isa. ix. 2-4. 



PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 95 

bless and save him saying : " And he will ease them of 
their burden and of the yokes which were upon them/' l 
See may God guide you and examine who is he who 
has broken the yoke from the children of Ishmael, 
destroyed the power of the enemies, and bruised the rod 
of the mighty. Has that light shone on anyone except 
on the dwellers in that dark desert of the pagan posterity 
of Ishmael ? 

And he said in this chapter : " Unto us a child is 
born, and unto us a son is given, whose government is 
on his shoulder." 2 He means by that "his prophecy is 
on his shoulder/' All this is according to the books 
of the Syrians which Marcus has translated ; but in 
Hebrew it is said " The sign of prophecy is on his 
shoulder/' 3 This is what the Muslims call " the seal of 
prophecy." This is, therefore, a clear allusion to the 
portraiture of the Prophet may God bless and save 
him and a reference to his face and his moles." 4 

And he said in the tenth chapter, enlightening what 
was obscure and explaining what was difficult in his 
prophecies : "Thou wilt come from the country of th, 
South, 5 from a remote country, and from the land of the 
desert, hastening and passing through like tempests and 
storms from the winds. We have seen a grievous and 
dreadful vision ; the treacherous dealer dealeth treacher- 
ously, and the spoiler spoileth. Go up, O mountains of 
Elam, and mountains of Media. 6 All the object of your 
desire and of your dispute hath ceased. Therefore is my 

1 Kur. vii. I 56. 3 Isa. ix. 6. 

3 The Hebrew also has " government " TWD . 

4 Cf. Ibn Taimlyah's al-Jawab us-Sahih ii. 211, The seal of pro- 
phecy is well described by I.S. i., ii. 131. 

5 The author is playing here on the Arabic word tayammana, meaning 
to go to Yaman, or in the direction of the right hand, i.e. for the Northern 
Arabs : Yamanwards or southwards. 

6 In the text Mahln (about which see Tab. i. 2627, 2632, etc.) ; this 
bears out the generally accepted opinion that " Mah " is to be identified 
with " Mede? See also p. 137. 



96 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

loin filled with pain, and I feel the pangs of a woman in 
travail. I am pained, so that I cannot hear, and I am 
dismayed, so that I cannot see. My heart fainteth, and 
dim-sightedness hath affrighted me. What I loved as 
agreeable and pleasant has become terrifying and as 
something dreadful. Prepare ye then the tables ; and 
ye who watch and spy lift up your eyes, and eat and 
drink. Let the princes and the leaders rise up to their 
shields. Let them anoint them with ointment, for thus 
hath the Lord said unto me : ' Go, and set the watchman 
on the watch, to declare what he seeth.' And what he 
hath seen was a pair of horsemen, one riding on an ass, 
and another riding on a camel ; and he hath heard great 
and long speech. And the watchman told me secretly 
and said in my ear : ' I am the permanent Lord, and I 
stand continually upon the watch tower and the high 
place of vision, day and night* While I was in that 
condition, behold, one of the horsemen approached, say- 
ing : * Babylon is fallen, is fallen, and all the graven 
images of her gods are broken unto the ground. That 
which I have heard from the mighty Lord, God of Israel, 
have I declared unto you/ " l 

This, too, is a clear and obvious prophecy which only 
the man who deceives himself and throws away his 
intelligence can reject. As no reasonable man dares 
feign ignorance and say that there was in the world a 
rider on an ass more appropriate to this prophecy than 
the Christ peace be with Him so also no man with 
sound judgment and intelligence is allowed to say that 
there was in the world a rider on a camel more appro- 
priate to this prophecy than the Prophet may God bless 
and save him and his nation. 2 Are not the men of 
intelligence and science amongst the People of the Book 
ashamed to attribute such a clear and sublime prophecy 
to some rude and barbarous people ? 

1 Isa. xxi. i-io. 2 Cf. Ibn. Taimlyah's Jawab (ibid.). 



PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 97 

The prophet Isaiah has explained his saying, and has 
not left them in blindness, and has opened their deaf 
ears, in adding : " Thus saith the Lord, thou wilt come 
from the country of the South ( = of Yaman)." Then he 
explained that by saying : " From a remote country, and 
from the land of the desert/ 7 in order that no objection 
may be left to the adversary. Then he added, saying 
"The gods of Babylon are fallen, are fallen, and have 
been destroyed. " Now, there were incessantly in the 
country of Babylon kings who worshipped now idols, 
now fires, till the appearance of the Prophet may God 
bless and save him who destroyed their might, pulled 
down the temples of their idols and their fires, and 
brought them into his religion either of their free will or 
by force. Did not the adversaries feel abashed in saying 
that the rightly guided prophets, of the family of Isaac 
peace be with them prophesied about the kings of 
Babylon, Media, Persia, and Khuzistan, 1 and neglected 
to mention such an eminent Prophet and such a great 
and Abrahamic nation, and such a victorious Empire, or 
that God had hidden and concealed such a nation from 
them? 

As to his saying " I saw a treacherous dealer dealing 
treacherously," he designates by it Persia, Khuzistan, and 
the land of Nabatia, which he has mentioned in saying to 
them " Go back unsuccessful to your countries, and retire 
like banished and plundered people.' 72 

And he said in this chapter : " In the forest which is 
on the way to Duranim 3 shall ye lodge in the evening. 
O inhabitants of the South, welcome with water him that 
is thirsty, and receive with food the scattered and dis- 
persed people ; because the sword hath scattered them ; 
and their dispersion was from sharp spear-heads, bent 

1 Country extending between Ahwaz, Basrah, and Ispahan ( Yakut > 

i- 497). 

2 See below about Isa. xxiv. 16-18. The sentence is misplaced. 

3 According to the Peshitta reading. 

7 



98 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

bows, and a grievous and fierce war." 1 Who are these 
thirsty people who came forth from the direction of 
the South, whom the Most High God has ordered the 
inhabitants of the country to meet ? Or who are the 
peoples expatriated and scattered by war ? And who are 
those whom God hath commanded to receive with water 
and food, except the Arabs, when they rose to fight 
against the neighbouring nations, Persians, Greeks, and 
others, who separated them from water and pasture ? 

And he said in the eleventh chapter : " From the 
ends of the earth have we heard song and hymn to the 
righteous and the pious, saying : ' A secret to me, a 
secret to me/ 2 and saying 'Woe is me; the treacherous 
dealers have dealt treacherously; yea the treacherous 
dealers have dealt treacherously. I am surrounding you, 
o inhabitants of the earth, with fear, pit, and snare ; and 
he who fleeth from war shall fall into the pit ; and he 
who cometh up out of the pit shall be taken in the snare, 
for the doors of heaven are open, and the foundations of 
the earth shake and tremble/ 13 This is according to the 
translation of Marcus, while the Hebrew, which is the 
original, says "We have heard, from the ends of the 
earth, the voice of Muhammad" * And Maccah is in the 
ends of the earth, and on the sea-shore. Let them tell 
us when and in what generation have the polytheists and 
the unbelievers suffered such terrors, punishments, and 
calamities such as those they have endured under this 
Arab Empire ? 

1 Isa. xxi. 13-14. Evidently the author did not consult the Hebrew text 
where there is very probably a clear mention of Arabia, which is missing in 
Syriac. 

2 Possibly a literal translation of the Syriac expression Raz li, mean- 
ing figuratively "woe is me." 

3 Isa. xxiv. 16-18. 

4 There is no such a thing in the Hebrew Massoretic text. The only 
difference between the Syriac and the Hebrew texts is that the former has 
" the force of the righteous" while the latter exhibits "glory to the 
righteous" 



PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 99 

And he said in the sixteenth chapter, explaining the 
preceding prophecies, and rebuking men of obstinacy and 
delusion : " Let the inhabitants of the arid desert rejoice, 
and let the wilderness and the desert be glad ; let them 
blossom like the autumn crocus, and let them rejoice and 
flourish like a mountain goat, because they will be given 
by Ahmad the glory of Lebanon, 1 and something like the 
excellency of watery meadows and luxuriant gardens. 
And they shall see the glory of Allah may He be 
exalted and glorified and the excellency of our God/' 2 
Do you not see may God guide you in this prophecy 
that Isaiah peace be with him has given to you 
and which the Revelation has mentioned the Arabian 
deserts and wildernesses, and the freshness, brightness, 
and honours prepared for them by Ahmad peace be 
with him ? Does any doubt still disturb you, after he 
has mentioned him by name and described the dry 
desert ? 

And he said in the nineteenth chapter, adding more 
light and clearness: " Someone cried in the wilderness 
' Prepare the way for the Lord, and make straight in 
the desert the way for our God. All the valleys shall 
be filled with water, and they will overflow; and the 
mountains and the hills shall become low; and the 
hillocks shall be levelled, and the rough ground shall be 
plain and smooth ; and the glory of the Lord shall be 
rtvealed, and everyone shall see it, because the Lord 
hath said it.' " 3 Do you know may God guide you a 
na ion which God has called from the desert and the 
wi derness, and to which He has made the rough places 
straight, the sterile lands fertile, and the dry land rich 
with pasture ; to which He has made the valleys over- 
flow with water, for their thirsty ones ; and to which He 
has subjugated the giants and the kings whom He has 

1 The Syriac is simply " And in glory it (i.e. the desert) will be given 
the honour of Lebanon." 

3 Isa. xxxv. 1-2. 3 Isa. xl. 3-5. 



ioo BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

represented by the above hills and mountains except this 
Arab nation for which the Tigris became like a beaten 
track ? When they reached it, they said unanimously : 
"He who has protected us on land will also protect us 
on sea ; " then they crossed it, while on the other side 
were Chosrau and his warriors and Marzubans ; l they 
despised him, and they did not recoil from him when 
they were half naked, barefooted, and protecting their 
heads with nothing but their wrists. 

And he said in this chapter : " The Lord God will 
appear with might, and His arm with strength and 
power. His reward is with Him, and His work before 
Him, like the shepherd who shepherds his flock ; and He 
will gather His sheep with His arm, and carry them in 
His bosom, and He will feed Himself those that give 
suck/' 2 We have already proved in what has preceded, 
and in our book of Reply to the Different Denomina- 
tions of Christians that the words "God" and "Lord" 
are applied also to men. This prophecy corroborates 
this statement, since Isaiah declared that the "Lord 
God " was a man whose reward was with him, and his 
work before him. He alluded by this to the Prophet 
may God bless and save him because it is he whose 
reward was before him, and it is he who freely distri- 
buted his presents and gifts to the fighters for God's 
sake, from the spoils of the successes and victories which 
accompanied him. His saying " He is like the shepherd 
who shepherds his flock," is a figure of the tenderness 
of the Prophet may God bless and save him and his 
gentleness towards his co-religionists ; because the Most 
High God says about him may God bless and save him 
"Now hath an Apostle come unto you from among 
yourselves ; your iniquities press heavily upon him. He 
is careful over you, and towards the faithful, com- 

1 High dignitaries. The above saying is (curiously enough) reported 
by Michael the Syrian (ii. 423 edit. Chabot). 
a lsa. xl. lo-n. 



PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 101 

passionate, merciful/' 1 And the Most High God said to 
Moses peace be with him " I shall make thee a god to 
Pharaoh." 2 And it is said in the Torah : " The sons of 
the Most High God saw the daughters of men that they 
were fair and handsome, and they took them as wives/' 8 
And the prophet David may God bless and save him 
said: "The Lord said to my Lord/' 4 In all these 
passages it has been demonstrated that the two words 
" God " and " Lord " were applied to men. 

And Isaiah peace be with him said in this chapter : 
" Who hath raised the Pious One 5 from the East, and 
hath called him to his foot, in order to give him the 
nations, and to awe by him the kings, and to make his 
swords as abundant as dust and earth, and his bows as 
numerous as disseminated sheaves ? He shall overcome 
them and strike them in the face ; then he shall bring 
forth peace ; and shall not set off for a journey on foot." 6 
This is similar to what the Most High God has said in 
the Kur'an. About his saying " Who hath raised the 
Pious One from the East/' the land of Hijaz, and that of 
'Irak, with their neighbourhood, are to the inhabitants of 
Syria, east ; and Syria, to the inhabitants of Barkah and 
of Ifrikiyah is east; and the land of Yaman and that of 
Hijaz are called by the learned men, south. The one 
41 called to the foot " of the " friend of God " 7 is the 
Prophet may God bless and save him and it is to him 
that God has given the nations ; and it is by him that He 
has scolded the kings, and they were awed ; and it is he 
whose archers and sword-bearers are innumerable ; and 
it is by him that God has struck the nations in the face, 

1 Kur. ix. 129. The author's book mentioned above seems to be 
identical with the one mentioned below (p. 107) under the title : Book of 
Reply to Christians. 

2 Exod. vii. i. 3 Genes, vi. 2. 

4 Ps. ex. i. 5 The Syriac version has "piety." 

6 Isa. xli. 2-4. 

7 i.e. Abraham. The author alludes here also to the Makam Ibrahim 
found in the Ka'bah of Maccah. (See above, p. 90.) 



102 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

has defeated and humbled them, and then has brought to 
them faith, which is Islam, and peace, as the Most High 
God says through the prophet Isaiah peace be with 
him. 

And he said in the twentieth chapter : " O family of 
Abraham, my friend, whom I have strengthened ! I have 
called thee from the ends of the earth, and from its 
plateaus and elevated places ; I have called thee and said 
to thee : Thou art my servant, and I have chosen thee ; 
and I have not made a secret of it. Fear thou not, for I 
am with thee, and be not dismayed, for behold I am thy 
God. I have strengthened thee, then I have helped thee, 
and with my strong and righteous hand I have upheld 
thee ; for that, they that have the advantage over thee 
shall be ashamed and confounded ; and they that fight 
and oppose thee shall be as nothing and shall disappear, 
and the people who resist thee shall perish. Thou shall 
seek them, and shalt not find any trace of them, because 
they shall cease and they shall be as something forgotten 
before thee ; for I, the Lord, have strengthened thy right 
hand. I said unto thee, Fear not, because I am thy 
help ; and thy redeemer is the Holy One of Israel, saith 
God the Lord. I have made thee a sharp threshing 
instrument which thresheth all that is under it, and 
beateth it thoroughly. Thou shalt do likewise ; thou 
shalt make the mountains low and thresh them, and thou 
shalt make the towns and the hills as chaff that winds 
shall carry away and whirlwinds shall scatter ; and thou 
shalt rejoice then and rest in the Lord, and become 
Muhammad 1 in the Holy One of Israel." 2 

This is a living prophecy, a saying clear and not 
difficult, distinctly and not ambiguously worded. The 
man spoken to is from the family of Abraham and from 
the descendants of Ishmael, who are represented by a 
pestle which triturates and a threshing instrument which 
pounds the mountains in the name of the God of Muham- 

1 Syr. Thou shalt be glorified." 3 Isa. xli. 8-16. 



PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 103 

mad whom He has mentioned by name, in saying " He 
shall become Muhammad in the Most High God." Truth 
has become manifest, and the veil has been withdrawn. 
And if a sophist squabbles here, the most he could say 
would be that the meaning of the Syriac word is " he 
became Mahmud" and not " Muhammad; " but he who 
knows the Arabic language and is versed in its grammar 
will not contradict us in saying that the meaning of 
Mahmud and of Muhammad is identical. 

And he said in this chapter : "The poor and the weak 
seek water, and there is no water for them ; their tongues 
have withered with thirst; and I, the Lord, will then 
answer their call, and will not forsake them ; but I will 
open for them rivers on the mountains, and will make 
fountains flow in the desert ; I will create pools of water 
in the wilderness, and will make springs of water flow in 
the dry land ; I will grow, in the waste deserts, the pine- 
tree, the myrtle, and the olive-tree ; and I will plant in 
the arid desert the handsome cypress, that they may all 
of them see, and know, and consider, and understand 
that the hand of God hath done this, and the Holy One 
of Israel hath created it." l O my cousins, how can you 
find an escape from this clear and living prophecy ? 
What could you say about it after Isaiah mentioned the 
countries, described the dry lands, the deserts, and the 
wilderness of Arabia, the springs to which God has given 
outlet, the rivers which He has caused to flow, and the 
different kinds of trees which He has planted therein ? 
Then Isaiah mentioned the poor and the thirsty people of 
the desert and of Hijaz,- and declared that it is the hand 
of the Most High God that has done it. He who rejects 
and throws away this prophecy has neither religion, nor 
shame, nor fairness. The name of the Prophet may 

1 Isa. xli. 17-20. 

2 For the linguistic meaning given by Arab writers to the word ffijaz, 
see Lammens's Le berceau de V Islam, p. 1 3. It is generally used in the 
sense of " barrier." 



104 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

God bless and save him having been mentioned in the 
preceding prophecy, what have you now left, O ye who 
doubt ? And what would be the reasonable and accept- 
able excuse for the man who makes himself deaf and 
blind with regard to it ? 

And he said in the twenty-first chapter : " Let the 
beasts of the desert, from jackals to ostriches, honour Me 
and exalt Me, because I have given water in the wilder- 
ness, and I have made rivers to flow in the country of 
Ashimun, in order that My chosen people might drink 
from them ; let then My people that I have chosen drink 
from them." l He who has doubts about the preceding 
prophecies will have no excuse in ignoring, or feigning 
to ignore, that the ostriches live only in the wilderness. 
He has mentioned the foxes and the ostriches as an 
illustration referring to people dwelling in the desert and 
the wilderness. He who squabbles about this and tries 
to make it ambiguous is on the way to perdition. 

And he said in the twenty-second chapter, on behalf 
of the Most High God : " I am the Lord, and there is 
no God besides Me ; I am He from whom no secret is 
hidden ; I declare to (My) servants what hath not been 
done, before it is done, and I reveal unto them the events 
and the unknown things, and I will do all My pleasure : 
calling a bird from the desert and from the far and 
remote country." 2 This is the Prophet may God bless 
and save him and it is he with whom God was pleased 
on account of the diligence which he had shown in 
pleasing and loving Him. If the adversaries shout and 
quibble, let them tell us where are the deserts and the 
waste lands which the Most High God has described, 
and who is the man whom He has called, and who 
pleased Him. 

And he said in the twenty-third chapter, speaking to 
mankind of the Prophet may God bless and save him 
11 Listen, O isles, and understand, ye nations. The Lord 

1 Isa. xliii. 20-21. a Isa. xlvi. 9-11. 



PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 105 

hath invested me with majesty from far, and from the 
womb hath He made mention of my name. And He hath 
made my tongue as a sharp sword, when I was still in 
the womb. And He hath hidden me in the shadow of 
His right hand. And He hath put me in His quiver as a 
chosen shaft ; and He hath kept me close for His secret, 
and said unto me * Thou art My servant.' My piety and 
my justice are, therefore, before the Lord, truly; and 
my works are in the hands of my God, 1 and I became 
Muhammad* with the Lord, and in my God are my 
strength and my power/' 3 If somebody denies the name 
of Muhammad in these verses, let it be then Mahmud ; he 
will not find a way to any other objection. It is, indeed, 
he whose tongue has been made by God as a sword, and 
this tongue is the perspicuous Arabic, which He had hidden 
in His quiver for His secret and His divine Economy 
which He has revealed ; and it is he who, morning and 
evening, says through his community " There is no 
strength and there is no power except by God." 

And he said in the twenty-sixth chapter what would 
enlighten, corroborate, and confirm his preceding pro- 
phecies, and spoke to Hagar peace be with her " Sing, 
O woman of few children and desolate, and rejoice in 
Hamd, O barren ; because the children of the deserted 
and the ill-treated have become more numerous than 
those of the fortunate and the favourite. And the Lord 
said to her, Enlarge the places of thy tents, and stretch 
forth the curtains of thy habitations. Spare not, and be 
not weak, but lengthen thy cords, and strengthten thy 
stakes, for thou shalt spread and extend in the earth, on 
the right hand and on the left, and thy seed shall inherit 
the nations, and they shall inhabit the desolate and 
ruined towns. " 4 

1 The author has omitted the words which refer to Jacob and Israel. 

2 Syr. " I was glorified." 3 Isa. xlix. 1-5. 

4 Isa. liv. 1-4. The Syriac, "shall make the desolate and ruined 
towns inhabited. 1 ' The Arabic sentence may also bear this meaning. 



io5 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

Would that 1 knew what they might say about this 
prophecy in which the Most High God has mentioned 
both Sarah and Hagar peace be with them and in 
which Isaiah peace be with him has described the 
tents of the descendants of Hagar. To whom do these 
refer and are suitable, but to the children of Hagar and 
her posterity ? To whom do the tents and the tent-cords 
belong, except to her descendants? You would perhaps 
say that the prophet meant by them the Abyssinians and 
the Turks, because they also have tents and stakes (!) He 
who makes himself so blind as to reject this prophecy is 
really blind, having little sight for himself, and rebelling 
openly against his Lord ; so much so that the Most High 
God has not left them any doubt, but has repeated, 
enlightened, and explained His saying. 

And, on behalf of the Most High God, he said in the 
twenty-eighth chapter : " By Myself have I sworn, and 
from My mouth the word of righteousness have I shown 
forth, which has no contradiction and change : unto Me 
every knee shall bow, and by Me every tongue shall 
swear, and they shall say one and all that the grace is 
from the Lord." l Which is the community which swears 
by the name of God, and who are those who kneel down 
to the name of the One God, praise His grace, morning 
and evening, and exalt Him and pray to Him as One, 
except the Muslims ? As to the Christians, they attribute 
grace and merits to the Christ, and say at the beginning 
of their prayers at the altars "May the grace of Jesus 
Christ be fulfilled on us." 2 

And Isaiah prophesied in this chapter revealing the 
secrets of the preceding prophecy, and rebuking blind 

1 Isa. xlv. 23-24. These verses precede the above quotations in the 
Book of Isaiah, but have been cited after them. The same phenomenon 
will also occur below, and this would imply that our MS. may be con- 
sidered as a transcript from the first draft of the author's autograph. 

2 These words are found at the beginning of the Syro-Nestorian liturgy. 
See Mtssate juxta ritum Ecclesia Syrorum Orientalium, Mosul, 1901, p. 



PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 107 

and ignorant people. He did not leave the sophist any 
excuse nor the obstinate any outlet, for he spoke to 
Hagar, saying : " O thou plunged and immersed in pains, 
who hast not possessed happiness nor comfort, behold, I 
will set thy stones in beryl, and consolidate thy founda- 
tions in sapphire, and adorn thy walls with rubies, and 
thy gates with carbuncles, and embellish the borders of 
thy house with precious stones. All thy children shall 
recognise Me there, and shall not deny Me, and I shall 
make peace general to thy sons. In righteousness and 
justice shalt thou be embellished. Decline then from 
oppression and aversion, for thou art safe from them ; 
and turn away from humility and lowliness, for they shall 
not come near thee ; and whosoever is sent by Me shall 
come to thee, and shall dwell in thee ; and thou shalt be 
a refuge and a protection for those who dwell and live in 
thee." 1 Examine this prophecy may God guide you 
since you are intelligent and skilled in controversy, and 
see for yourselves, since you are responsible people ; do 
you know another " plunged and immersed in pains" 
besides Hagar, and does this address suit another one 
besides her and her children ? What honour is greater 
and higher than the testimony of God, to the effect that 
all of them know Him and do not ignore Him, and that 
He has made their country a " refuge" and a " protection, " 
that is to say an asylum and a place of safety. Maccah 
has indeed been built in mosaic work and with the best 
stones, and the diadems of kings have been brought into 
it. He who has his two ears let him hear my speech 
and my advice ; let him ponder over these testimonies 
and analogies, let him sit alone with this book and with 
my other book entitled Book of Reply to Christians; let 
him seek true guidance from God and work for the de- 
liverance of his soul, before its condemnation overtakes 
him. 

He prophesied, too, in this chapter, called and cried, 

1 Isa. liv. 11-15. 



io8 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

saying: "O those who thirst, come ye to the water and 
the watering-place, and he that hath no money, let him 
go and take food and drink, and have wine and milk with- 
out money and without price." l This prophecy of Isaiah 
points to the grants of God to the posterity of Hagar, 
the nation of the Prophet may God bless and save him 
that they will go, in the world to come, to what the 
Most High has promised them: "rivers of wine and 
rivers of milk, the taste whereof changes not, and rivers 
of wine delicious to those who drink/' 1 Ponder over the 
similarity and resemblance which exists between the two 
prophecies. 

And he said in this chapter : " I have set thee as a 
witness to the peoples, a leader and a commander to the 
nations, in order that thou mightest call the nations that 
thou knewest not ; and the nations that knew thee not 
will come to thee in haste and with eagerness, because of 
the Lord, thy God, the Holy One of Israel, who hath 
made thee Ahmad* Seek ye then what is with the Lord, 
and if ye know Him, listen to Him, and when He is near 
to you, let the sinner forsake his sin, and the unrighteous 
man his way, and let him return unto me that I may 
have mercy on him, and let him be converted to our God 
whose mercy and goodness are abundant/' 4 He who 
ponders over this prophecy and examines it carefully 
will not be in need of any other, because Isaiah has 
mentioned the Prophet may God bless and save him 
by name, and has said "God hath made thee Ahmad." 
If the adversary prefers to say " It is not Muhammad, 
but Mahmud" we will agree with him, because their 
meaning is identical. And the nations came to him in 
haste and eagerness, and God made him a leader to 
the nations, a caller to God, as Isaiah says, and an 
illuminating lamp. 

And he said in the twenty-eighth chapter that the 

'Isa. lv. I. 2 Kur. xlvii. 16. 

3 Syr. "has glorified thee." 4 Isa. lv. 4-7. 



PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 109 

Most High " God looked, and there was no justice, 1 and 
it displeased Him ; and He saw that nobody was vin- 
dicating the truth ; therefore the Lord wondered at that, 
and sent His intercessor, and brought salvation unto him 
with His arm, and upheld him with His grace. And he 
put on piety as a breastplate, and laid upon his head the 
helmet of help and salvation ; and clothed himself with 
garments of deliverance to take vengeance upon those 
who hated and opposed him. To the inhabitants of the 
islands he will pay recompence, so that the name of God 
might be feared from the western parts of the earth, and 
his glory revered from its eastern parts/" 2 The Prophet 
may God bless and save him has put on righteousness 
as a breastplate, laid on his head the helmet of help and 
salvation, clothed himself with garments of deliverance 
and vengeance against the enemies of God, repaid re- 
compense to the inhabitants of the islands, and made 
manifest the name of God in the Eastern and Western 
parts of the earth, the inhabitants of which submitted to 
him. Where is your escape from this, and what is your 
argument against these prophecies realised through him ? 
And how can a man, who has stubbornly contradicted 
God and deafened himself towards His revelation and 
His call, flee from Him ? 

And he prophesied in this chapter about what only 
the weak minded people would reject, and the most 
ignorant and blind would ignore ; because he again 
mentioned Hagar, and spoke to her and to Maccah, the 
country of her children, saying : " Arise, and make thy 
lamp shine ; for thy time is come and the glory of God is 
rising upon thee. For the darkness hath covered the 
earth, and fog hath overspread the nations. The Lord 
shall shine upon thee, and His glory shall be seen upon 
thee. And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and the 
kings to the brightness of thy rising. Lift up thy sight 
round about and contemplate; they shall all gather 

] Or: judgment. 2 Isa. lix. 15-18. 



i io BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

themselves together to thee, and they shall make pil- 
grimage l to thee. Thy sons shall come to thee from a 
remote country, and thy daughters shall be nursed in 
canopies and on couches. Thy heart shall be enlarged, 
because the sea shall be converted unto thee, and the 
armies of the Gentiles shall make pilgrimage to thee, 1 and 
thou shalt throng with numerous camels, and thy land is 
too small for the files of animals which shall gather to 
thee. The rams of Midian and of Ephah shall be brought 
to thee, and the inhabitants of Sheba shall come to thee, 
and shall tell the favours of God, and shall praise Him. 
All the flocks of Kedar shall come to thee, and the lambs 
of Nebaioth shall minister unto thee. They shall offer 
on My altar what pleases Me, and then I will renew a 
Hamd to the house of my mahmadah." 2 

This, too may God guide you is a prophecy which 
was realised, and a sign which was fulfilled and made 
true ; the Gentiles have come to the light of the faith, and 
the treasures of the sea have been converted unto this 
Muslim nation ; the droves of the nations have gone to 
Maccah, and camels of high breed and files of animals 
have thronged its population, and the inhabitants of Yaman 
and of Sheba have repaired to it. What is more force- 
ful and to the point for the enlightenment of the oppo- 
nents, is that Kedar and Nebaioth are from the children 
of Ishmael peace be with him who dwelt round Mac- 
cah and became its possessors and ministers. God has 
indeed renewed a Hamd to the house of His mahmadah : 
Muhammad may God bless and save him ! If this is not 
so, let them then name other than the Prophet may God 
bless and save him and other than Maccah; let them 
compare his portrait with this description, and model his 
characteristics upon those of these prophecies, in order 
that the veil may be rent open and truth made manifest. 

And he said in this chapter : " Thus saith the Lord, 
the inhabitants of the isles shall wait for me, with those 
1 Syr. " will come.' 1 a Isa. Ix. 1-7. 



PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH in 

that are in the ships of Tarshish, as they did before. They 
shall bring thy sons from a remote country, their silver 
and their gold with them, unto the name of the Lord thy 
God, the Holy One of Israel, who hath made thee Ahmad 1 
and honoured thee. And the sons of strangers shall build 
up thy rampart, and their kings shall minister unto thee ; 
and thy gates shall be open continually at all times of 
night and day, and they shall not be shut ; and the multi- 
tudes of the Gentiles shall enter into thee, and their kings 
shall be brought captive to thee ; for the nation and king- 
dom that will not serve thee shall perish, 2 yea those 
nations shall be utterly wasted with sword. Honour 
shall come unto thee from the fine pine-tree of Lebanon, 
and from its fir-tree, in order that My house may be made 
fragrant with it, and the place of My foot glorified with 
the abode of My honour. The sons also of them that 
afflicted thee shall come unto thee, and all they that 
harmed thee and persecuted thee shall kiss the prints of 
thy feet. I will set thee for honour for ever, and for 
beatitude and joy in all generations. And thou shall suck 
the milk of the Gentiles, shalt have a share in the spoils 
of kings, and taste from thy raids upon them. Then thou 
shalt know that I am the Lord thy Saviour ; because for 
brass I will give thee gold, and for iron silver, and for 
wood brass, and for stones iron ; and I will make peace 
to be thy leader, and righteousness and justice thy might, 
and the Lord shall be unto thee a light and a lamp for 
ever." 3 

Understand, O my cousins, this prophecy, and see who 
it is whose rampart has been built by strangers, who has 
been ministered unto by mighty ones, to whom kings 
have been brought bound and fettered, and who wasted 
and destroyed with sword every kingdom and nation 
which did not submit to him. Do you know for the foot 
of the " Friend of God/' 4 a place mentioned besides 

1 Syr. " Glorified thee." 2 Lit. " Its veils shall be scattered. 31 

8 Isa. be. 9-19. 4 Allusion to the Kabbah ; cf. pp. 90 and 101. 



i J2 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

Maccah to which people go in the pilgrim's garb ot 
humility, at the door of which they worship, and to which 
they repair from the ends of the earth in answer to the 
divine call ? 

And he said in the twenty-fourth chapter, speaking 
also to the Prophet may God bless and save him 
" Thus saith the Lord, the Holy One of Israel : He 
whose soul was despised and dishonoured, whom the 
nations mocked, whom the followers of the ruler 
scorned, before him shall kings arise when they see him, 
and rulers shall bow down, because the promise of God is 
true. It is the Holy One of Israel who hath elected thee 
and chosen thee, and it is He who saith : In an accept- 
able time have I answered thee, and in difficulties 1 
have I helped thee. I have chosen thee and established 
thee for a covenant to the Gentiles, and light to the 
nations, in order that earth may be made secure by thee. 
Thou shalt inherit the heritages of waste places, and thou 
shalt say to the prisoners : Go forth and be loose, and to 
them that are in prison : Show yourselves and set off, and 
feed your flocks in the ways, because in that time your 
pastures shall be found in every direction and in every 
path. They shall not hunger nor thirst ; neither shall the 
simooms nor suns smite them, because their Rahman' 1 is 
with them ; even to the springs and the fountains of water 
shall he guide them. And he shall make all the mountains 
ways and roads to them, and with them they will dis- 
pense with paths and beaten tracks. And people shall 
come from a far and remote country, these from the 
South, these from the sea, and these from the sea of 
Sinim. Sing, O heaven, and be joyful, O earth, and break 
forth into Hamd, O mountains, for the Lord hath com- 
forted His people, and hath pitied the afflicted of His 
creatures. " 8 

1 Syr. and Hebr. " in the day of salvation." 

3 Name given to God in the Iur'an ; it is the Aramaic adjective- 
substantive " ragman," meaning " compassionate." 
3 Isa. xlix. 7-13. 



PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 113 

This is clearness and not ambiguity, distinctness and 
not confusion ; it is an obvious prophecy corroborating 
that which precedes it. By my life, it is only the Prophet 
and his nation whom the prophet Isaiah peace be with 
him has mentioned as being despised and dishonoured, 
who inherited the waste places, released the captives from 
prisons and bonds, and fed their flocks in the highways, 
after the state of siege and the hardships in which the 
Arabs lived under Chosrau and Caesar ; and it is only 
to them that the mountains became ways and roads. 
As to the meaning of his saying "The Holy One of 
Israel/ 1 since he was speaking to the children of Israel, 
he called God by the name given Him by the children of 
Israel. 

And he said in this chapter, a part of which he devoted 
to an address to Hagar and to Maccah : " I have graven 
thee upon the palms of my hands, therefore thy walls are 
continually before me. Thy children shall make haste 
and come to thee ; and they shall drive out from thee 
them that wished to harm thee and destroy thee. Lift up 
thine eyes above and behold : they shall come to thee, and 
to the last man they shall gather together to thee. As 
I live, saith God, swearing by His name, thou shalt surely 
put them on as a garment, and thou shalt be adorned 
with crowns as a bride. And thy deserts, thy waste 
places, and the land to which they banished thee and in 
which they pressed thee, shall be too narrow for thee, by 
reason of the great number of their inhabitants and of 
them that wish to dwell therein. And they that opposed 
thee and swallowed thee up shall flee from thee. The 
children of thy restricted fecundity will say to thee *O 
desolate woman of little offspring, the countries have be- 
come too strait for us; therefore clear ye away, and 
remove, that we may extend in their deserts/ Then thou 
shalt speak to thyself and say 'Who hath begotten me all 
these, while I am lonely, desolate, and a woman of little 
offspring, and while I am deserted, grieved, and enslaved ? 

8 



114 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

Who hath then brought up these to me, and who hath 
taken care of them for me ? ' lf l 

Is there anything more distinct, precise, lucid, and 
luminous than this ? God has sworn by Himelf, and His 
oath is true, and His engagement unbreakable that He 
will make the nations as garments to be worn by them, 
and as an ornament for their decoration ; this is true in 
the case of the Arabs and their Maccah, which is adorned 
every year with the highest silk brocades and diadems, 
and to which the finest pearls and ex-votos are brought 
from the house of the Caliphate a and from all the coun- 
tries of the Empire ; and who is the owner of the deserts 
and waste places, in which he was too narrowly pressed 
and to which he was banished, except this nomad and 
Hijazic nation ? And who is the woman without protec- 
tion, lonely, grieved, deserted and enslaved, to whom God 
spoke, except Hagar ? Is there any intelligent and sen- 
sible man among the adversaries who would give good 
advice to his soul, and pity it ? 

And he said in this chapter : " Thus saith the Lord, I 
will lift up mine hand upon the Gentiles, and set up a 
standard to them ; and the peoples shall bring thy sons 
in their hands, and they shall carry thy daughters upon 
their shoulders. And kings shall be thy nursing fathers, 
and the highest and noblest among their women thy 
nursing mothers ; and they shall bow down to thee with 
their face toward the earth, and lick up the dust of thy 
feet ; and thou shalt know then that I am the Lord, and 
they that wait for me shall not be ashamed.'* 3 

This is also a prophecy which has not been vain and 
without object. Nations have indeed brought to Maccah 
from the extreme ends of East and West, from Sind 
and India, from the countries of the Berbers, and from 
the deserts the posterity and the descendants of Hagar 
born in their country, and conducted them with pomp to 
their home. Their kings, too, and the noblest of their 

1 Isa. xlix. 16-21. 2 i.e. Baghdad. 3 Isa. xlix. 22-23. 



PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 115 

women nursed the sons and the daughters of Ishmael 
peace be with him and the nations bowed down to them 
in Maccah, with their face toward the earth in worship, 
and giants licked the prints of the foot of Abraham and 
of the feet of the Prophet may God bless and save 
them in humility, as benediction and devotion. 

And he said in this chapter : " Who is this that 
cometh from Edom with garments more red than ripen- 
ing dates ? l I see him glorious in his garment and his 
attire, and mighty on account of his horses and his 
armies ; it is I that speak in righteousness, and save the 
nations. It is to us an opportune day for exemplary 
punishment- The hour of deliverance hath become near, 
and the year of my salvation hath come to hand. And I 
looked, and there was none to help me ; and I wondered 
that there was none to yield to my view ; therefore mine 
own arm brought salvation unto me, and confirmed my 
foot with fury ; and I have trodden down the people in 
mine anger, and I have made their frontiers waste with 
my wrath and my fury, and I have buried their strength 
under the earth." 2 Examine this also, and be not of the 
number of those who doubt. 

And Isaiah prophesied in this chapter in addition to 
the preceding prophecy, and said on behalf of God : u I 
have made thee a name Muhammad ; look then from thy 
habitations and dwellings, O Muhammad, O Holy One, 
for thou art the Lord, our father and our saviour, and thy 
name is from everlasting." 3 This is similar to the pre- 
ceding prophecy of the prophet David peace be with 
him who said: " His name exists before the sun/' 4 and 
to his saying in the psalter : " In His mountain there is a 
Holy One and a Muhammad"* 

This mention by name is sufficient for the man not 
overcome by his stupidity, and the period of whose 

1 So the author seems to have understood the Syriac word Busar 
(Bozrah). Cf. however, Taj, iii. 42. 

2 Isa. Ixiii. 1-6. s Isa. Ixiii. 14-16. 

4 Ps. Ixxii. 17, cf. supra p. 90. 5 Ps. xlviii. i, cf. p. 88. 



116 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

aberration is not lengthened As to the meaning of the 
saying of Isaiah peace be with him that he is a " Holy 
One/ 1 the word "Holy" in the Syriac language means 
"a just and pure man;" likewise the name of "the 
Lord" refers to "lords, 1 ' as we have already demon- 
strated He who is not convinced by this prophecy and 
does not submit to it will openly contradict the Lord 
who has mentioned the Prophet twice by name, so as not 
to leave the adversaries in doubt. If a sophist quibbles 
and says that the saying of the Most High God " O 
Muhammad, O Holy One," refers to the "dwellings" 
which He had mentioned, the Syriac text would contra- 
dict him, because if " dwellings " were intended, it would 
have exhibited "Holy Ones and Muhammads," and it 
would not have said "Holy One and Muhammad/' 1 

And he said in this chapter : " Go through, go through 
the gate, and retrace the way for the nation. Level the 
highway, smooth it, and remove the stones from its 
footpaths, and lift up a standard and a road-mark for the 
people. For the Lord hath made His voice heard by 
all that are in the ends of the earth. Say thou to 
the daughter of Zion ' The coming of thy Saviour is 
near; His reward is with Him, and His work before 
Him/ And they shall be called a ' Holy People, redeemed 
by the Lord/ and thou shalt be called ' City, whose 
power hath been transferred to her by God from her 
enemies/ and 'whom her Lord hath not forsaken/" 2 
The Arabs are the holy people that the Lord has re- 
deemed ; and the city from whose enemies power has 
been transferred to her, and who has been avenged, is 
Maccah and its inhabitants. This is constant in the 
figurative style of the Arabs who say "Ask the city," 3 
to mean " Ask the inhabitants of the city." 

1 Strictly speaking, the Syriac text yields to the interpretation given 
to it by the author, because the word meaning " dwelling " (mediara) is, as 
he says, in singular ; but the Hebrew text, by having suffix-pronouns in 
the second member of the status constructus^ renders 'Ali's interpretation 
improbable. See below, p. 130. 

2 Isa. Ixii. 10-12. * Kur. xii. 82. 



XX. 

THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET HOSEA PEACE BE 
WITH HIM ABOUT THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS 
AND SAVE HIM. 

AND Hosea said : " I am the Lord God who have shep- 
herded thee in the wilderness, and in a waste and deserted 
land, in which are no inhabitants and no human beings/' 1 
This prophecy of Hosea resembles the preceding pro- 
phecies of Isaiah. We do not know anybody that God 
has shepherded in the desert and in a waste land except 
the Prophet may God bless and save him. 

And in corroboration of his saying, he described in 
this chapter the Prophet's nation as glorious and mighty, 
to which there was not, and there shall not be a similar 
one, having fire burning and kindling before her, and 
desolation behind her. The Arab nation is that to which 
there was not, and there shall not be a similar one, and 
the Prophet is the man that God has brought up and 
shepherded in the arid desert and the waste wilderness. 
This is a concise prophecy, but sufficient to anyone whom 
God has favoured with His guidance. The man whose 
shepherd and glorifier is God Himself, and to whom God 
testified that there was not, and there shall not be in the 
world a nation more powerful and greater than his, is to 
be glorified by all men, and his supremacy and merits 
must be acknowledged. He who fails to do so is an 
opponent of God and in the way of rebellion and error, 
since the prophet Hosea peace be with him testified 
that the nation to which there was not a similar one is 
this Arab nation. Therefore no man of discretion and 
intelligence is allowed to ascribe this prophecy to John, 
son of Zacharias, or to any community other than that of 
the Muslims. 

1 Hos. xiii. 5. 

(117) 



XXI. 

THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET MICAH ABOUT THE 
PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE BOTH OF THEM. 

HE said : " In the last days the mountain of the house of 
the Lord shall be established in the top of the mountains, 
and on the highest summits. And all nations shall come 
unto it, and many nations shall flow unto it, saying : 
Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord." l 

This is clearly a description of Maccah ; it is to it that 
many nations go for pilgrimage, repairing and flowing 
unto it in answer to the divine call. If somebody quibbles 
and says that Micah meant the temple of Jerusalem, how 
can he be right when God showed that the event shall 
take place in the last days ? The temple of Jerusalem 
was standing in the time of this prophet, who indeed 
must have prophesied about something which would 
take place in the future, and not about something of the 
past. 

1 Mic. iv. 1-2. 



(118) 



XXII. 

THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET HABAKKUK ABOUT THE 
PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE HIM. 

IT is similar to the prophecy of Moses peace be with him 
and even clearer and more luminous than it, because it 
mentions the Prophet peace be with him twice by name. 
The prophet Habakkuk peace be with him said : "God 
came from the South, and the Holy One from Mount 
Paran. Heaven was eclipsed by the resplendence of 
Muhammad, and the earth was full of his Hamd. The 
brightness of his sight shall be as the light, and he shall 
encircle his country with his might. Before him goes 
death, and rapacious birds accompany his armies. He 
stood and measured the earth, then he beheld the nations 
and pondered over them ; and the everlasting mountains 
were scattered, and the perpetual hills did bow. The 
curtains of the inhabitants of Midian did tremble ; and 
he took possession of the everlasting ways. And God 
was displeased against the rivers. Thine anger is in the 
rivers, and the wrath of thy impetuosity is in the seas. 
Thou didst ride on horses, and didst go up on the 
chariots of salvation and help. Thou shalt be filled in 
thy bows to overflowing, 1 and the arrows shall be 
drenched at thy command, O Muhammad. And the earth 
shall be cleft with rivers. The mountains saw thee, and 
they trembled, and the showers of the torrent passed 
away from thee. The abysses gave a sound of fear, and 
lifted up their hands in dread and dismay. The sun and 
the moon stood still in their course, and the armies 
marched at the light of thine arrows, and at the shining 

1 This prophetic passage is ambiguously translated. 



120 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

of thy spears. Thou shalt subjugate the earth in anger, 
and thou shalt tread upon the nations in wrath, because 
thou wentest forth for the salvation of thy people, and for 
the deliverance of the inheritance of thy fathers." 1 

This illuminating and sublime prophecy, about which 
there can be no doubt and suspicion, has revealed the 
truth, disclosed the secret, withdrawn the veils, and dis- 
carded the uncertainties. God has mentioned twice by 
name the Prophet may God bless and save him and 
has declared that death shall go before him, and rapacious 
birds shall accompany his banners, that he shall ride on 
horses and bring salvation, and that, at his command, the 
arrows shall be drenched with blood. It is he, too, to 
whom the sun and the moon stood still in their course, 
and the armies marched at the light of his arrows, and 
at the shining of his spears ; if it is not the man we have 
described, who then can he be ? Are they the captive 
and the banished children of Israel, or the peaceful and 
submissive Christians ? How can that be, when God has 
mentioned the Prophet twice by name in this prophecy, 
described his armies and his campaigns, and declared 
that he will tread upon the nations and subjugate them 
in anger and wrath ? O my cousins, leave obstinacy and 
chicanery, swallow the bitterness of truth, awake from 
your intoxication, and have right understanding about 
God and His just and pious prophets peace and prayer 
be with all of them. 

1 Hab. iii. 3-13. 



XXIII. 

THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET ZEPHANIAH ABOUT 
THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE HIM. 

HE said : " Wait, saith the Lord, for the day in which I 
shall rise up to witness. The time hath come to show 
forth my determination to gather all the nations and all 
the kings, to pour upon them my indignation and my 
fierce anger. For all the earth shall be devoured with 
my anger and my disapproval. There I will renew to 
the people the chosen language, that all of them may 
taste the name of the Lord, and serve Him together with 
one consent. And in those days they shall bring me 
sacrifices from beyond the rivers of Kush." 1 

Zephaniah revealed and declared on behalf of God 
what his colleagues had delivered. He described the 
nation which testifies "that there is no God but one, 
without a partner," and the members of which gather 
together for His worship and bring to Him sacrifices from 
the shores of the Sudan and from beyond the rivers. 
And the chosen language is the perspicuous Arabic, 
which is neither unintelligible, nor barbarous, nor so- 
phistical. It is this language which became common to 
the Gentiles who spoke it and were rejuvenated by the 
new dispensation that it brought to them. 

As to Hebrew, it was already the language of those 
prophets. As to Syriac, never did it cross the frontiers 
of the country of Syria; neither did Greek cross the 
country of the Greeks, nor Persian the city of Iran- 

J Zeph. iii. 8-10. 
(121) 



122 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

Shahr; 1 but Arabic reached as far as the spot where 
dust ends, the deserts of the Turks, and the countries of 
Khazar and India. 

1 A big city in N.W. of the province of Khurasan about which see Le 
Strange's The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, p. 382 seq. That the 
Persian language was not spoken beyond this city is historically interesting. 
Yakut (iv. 857), however, believes that Iran-Shahr is the name of the 
country between Jaihun and Kadisiyah. Cf. the article " Amu-Darya" in 
the Encyclopedia of Islam, i. p. 339 seq. In the text Iran-Shahr is pr bably 
to be identified with Naysabur (see Le Strange, ibid.). 



XXIV. 

THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET ZECHARIAH ABOUT 
THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE THEM 
WHICH CORROBORATES THE PROPHECY OF ZEPHA- 
NIAH PEACE BE WITH HIM. 

14 THE Lord God shall be in that day the king of all the 
earth ; in that day He shall be One Lord, and His name 
shall be one." 1 This prophecy has been realised, and the 
revelation has been fulfilled, and the religion has become 
one, and the Lord One, without dualism and Trinity in 
Him, without addition of anything to Him, and negation 
of any of His divine attributes ; and His name has become 
one without any ambiguity or partnership. 

And Zechariah peace be with him said also: "In 
that day the holiness of the Lord shall be even upon the 
bridle of the horse."' 2 The " holiness of the Lord " means 
here the name of the Lord and that of His Prophet 
peace be with him ; and this name is found to-day on 
every dress, habitation, weapon, and the like;. the day 
which the Most High God has described is, therefore, the 
Prophet's day. 

1 Zech. xiv. 9. J Zech. xiv. 20. 



XXV. 

THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET JEREMIAH ABOUT THE 
PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE BOTH OF 
THEM. 

IT is similar to the prophecies of Isaiah and of other 
prophets peace be with them and God spoke in it to the 
Prophet peace be with him. He said in the first chap- 
ter : " Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee ; and 
before thou earnest forth out of the womb I sanctified 
thee, and I appointed thee a prophet unto the nations. 
For whatsoever I command thee thou shalt proclaim, and 
thou shalt go to all that I shall send thee. And I am with 
thee to deliver thee, saith the Lord. And I have poured 
forth my speech in thy mouth ; examine and see, I have 
this day set thee over the nations and over the kingdoms 
to root out, pull down, destroy, pulverise, build, and 
plant, whom thou pleasest." 1 

Jeremiah peace be with him agrees with the pro- 
phecies of his colleagues, and corroborates, confirms, and 
strengthens them ; he describes the man who poured 
forth the word of God from his mouth, and whom God 
has empowered to root out nations, destroy nations, pul- 
verise nations, and preserve nations. Be satisfied with 
this for your knowledge, and take it as a decisive evidence. 
May God make Islam to be your religion, and may He 
count you in the number of His victorious servants ! A 
God-fearing inquirer will never find a way to ascribe this 
prophecy to a Christian, a Jew, or to any other. 

And he said in the fourth chapter : 4I I will incite 
against you from far, O children of Israel, a mighty 
nation, an ancient nation, a nation whose language is not 

1 Jer. i. 5-10. 

(124) 



PROPHECY OF JEREMIAH 125 

understood, and whose men are one and all skilled in 
warfare and mighty." 1 The Arab nation is the mighty 
nation whose language was not understood by the children 
of Israel ; each member of this nation is skilled in warfare 
and mighty ; and it is to them that the new language, 
mentioned by God through the prophet Zephaniah 
peace be with him belongs. 

And he said in the nineteenth chapter : " After those 
days, I will put my law in their mouths, and write it in 
their hearts, and will be their God, and they shall be my 
people. And a man shall not need to teach his brother 
and his neighbour faith and religion, nor to say to them 
4 Know the Lord ; ' for they shall all know Him, from the 
least of them unto the greatest of them. Because of that, 
I will forgive their iniquity, and will no more remind them 
of their sins." 2 

The promise of God has been fulfilled, because He has 
planted His love in the hearts of the least and the greatest 
men of this Muslim community, and has caused their 
tongues to proclaim His holy prescriptions and His 
praises. Each one of them knows God and believes in 
Him : their sons, their daughters, their slaves, and their 
bond-servants. You will not find an agriculturist, a sea- 
man, a groom, a sweeper, a small child, or a grown-up 
man, who could not, after having made his ablutions, read 
something from the Kur'an, recite correctly his prayer 
alone, and make his profession in God as one, and praise 
Him.* It is for this that God has called them His people, 
and was pleased to choose them for Himself. These 
meanings cannot be ascribed to any other besides the 
Muslims. And God is gracious to the worlds ! 4 

And he said in the thirty-first chapter : " The Lord 
saith : I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of their 
might and of their power. And against Elam will I rouse 
four winds from the four quarters of heaven, and will 

1 Jer. v. 15-16. 2 Jer. xxxi. 33-34. 

8 Allusion to the Muslim formula. 4 Kur. iii. 146. 



126 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

scatter its inhabitants towards all those quarters, until 
there shall be no nation where the outcasts and the 
scattered ones shall not be found. For I will scatter Elam 
before their enemies, and discomfit them before them 
that seek their life ; and I will bring evil and fierce anger 
upon them, and I will send the sword after them, till I 
have consumed them. And I will set my throne in Elam, 
and will destroy from thence kings and potentates that 
are there. This is the saying of the Lord." 1 

Elam is Ahwaz and its dependencies. The prophets 
mentioned it while they were themselves in Syria. When 
the Persian kings transferred their seat from Persia, they 
came and established their residence in Ahwaz and settled 
in it ; then, after a long period, they moved to Sawad.' 2 
The prophet peace be with him mentioned, therefore, 
Elam, because its name embraced all the Empire ; and 
indeed, Elam has never experienced general discomfiture 
and destruction similar to thtise she has endured through 
this Arab Empire. If somebody thinks here of Alexander 
and his victory, or of Tubba* and his incursion, what will 
make him abandon his opinion and vitiate it, and discard 
every doubt from him, is the saying of God may His 
name be blessed " I will set my throne in Elam/' that is 
to say, in the country of Babylon ; moreover, Alexander 
and the Tababi'ah were not related to the belief in God. 

There is another wonderful mystery in this prophecy ; 
it is that the Most High God has represented by it this 
'Abbassid Empire, and the dwelling in the land of 'Irak 
of the Caliphs from the family of 'Abbas, by His saying 
" I will set my throne in Elam." It is their appanage, 
which only the feeble-minded ignore. As to the Umay- 
yads, their residence was in Damascus. 

If somebody asks about the "throne," I will say that 
it means the power of God, and His prophecy which is 

3 Jer. xlix. 35-38. 

- Country embracing a tract of land wider than that of 'Irak, and 
corresponding approximately to the country oi the middle and lower Meso- 
potamia with a few towns of the S.W. parts of Persia (cf. Yakut^ iii. 174). 



PROPHECY OF JEREMIAH 127 

living in the lands of Elam and 'Irak, and in the littorals, 
islands, and districts of other countries in which there are 
mosques and oratories where hymns and praises are sung 
by the inhabitants, at every instant and moment of night 
and day. Jeremiah made mention of Elam, because the 
kings were in that time related to it, in the same way as 
the inhabitants of this country were related to the Persians 
in the days of the Persians, and are in our days related to 
the Arabs because the Arabs conquered them. As a 
proof to my statement that the meaning of " throne " is 
"power," is the saying of the prophet David peace be 
with him " Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever," 1 
i.e. thy power and thy might. 

And he said in the thirty-second chapter, speaking to 
the Prophet may God bless and save him " Prepare ye 
weapons of war to Me, for with thee will I scatter the 
nations, and with thee will I scatter the horses and their 
riders, and with thee will I scatter the chariots and their 
riders, and with thee will I scatter the young among men 
and women, and with thee will I scatter the shepherd and 
his flock, and with thee will I scatter the husbandman and 
his yoke of oxen, and with thee will I scatter the tyrants 
and the rulers; and I will punish Babylon and all the 
inhabitants of the countries of the Chaldaeans for all the 
crimes that they have done; this is the saying of the 
Lord."* 

God has made this prophecy as a sequel to the pre- 
ceding one, to which it is similar, and with which it is 
almost identical. He has indeed inflicted on the countries 
of the Chaldaeans and of Babylon what He had threatened 
them with, and has broken up their composed state of 
affairs, defeated their plans, destroyed their divinities, and 
revenged Himself on them ; and what a revenge ! And has 
destroyed them ; and what a destruction ! It is said that 
the kings of Babylon were for a long time related to 
Kalwadha, which is near the "City of Peace." 



3 



1 Ps. xlv. 6. 1J Jer. li. 20-24. 

;i I.e. Baghdad. About Kalwadha see Yakut, iv. 301. 



XXVI. 

THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET EZEKIEL ABOUT THE 
PROPHET PEACE BE WITH BOTH OF THEM. 

HE said in the ninth chapter : "Thy mother is planted on 
the water in thy blood, and she is like a vine which 
brought forth its fruits and its branches, by reason of 
many waters. Branches sprang up from it like strong 
rods standing high up over the branches of the nobles 
and the rulers ; their boughs became lofty and surpassed 
all others, and their stature was enhanced by their height 
and the thickness of their branches. But that vine was 
plucked up in fury, she was cast down to the ground, and 
the simooms dried up her fruits ; her strength was 
scattered, and the rods of her might withered, and the 
fire came and consumed them. Then a plant was planted 
in the wilderness, in the neglected, dry and thirsty land. 
And fire went out of her lofty rods, which devoured the 
fruits (of the first plant) ; so that she had no strong rod nor 
a branch to rise up for the power of authority." 1 

He who has questioned the preceding prophecy and 
quibbled over it, will be silenced and convinced by this 
one. God may His name be blessed has told us that 
He will extirpate the root of the Jews, destroy the mass 
of them, and annihilate their might and their beauty, 
which He has compared with the vine, together with its 
rods and branches. Then He added an illuminating and 
clear saying, when He may He be blessed and exalted 
declared that He will plant a new plant in the wilder- 
ness, and in the neglected and dry land, the branches of 

xix. 10-14. 
(128] 



PROPHECY OF EZEKIEL 129 

which shall bring forth a fire which will devour the 
branches of the first vine in order that no strong rod and 
no branch should be found in it to rise up to power and 
authority. The meaning of "rod" and "branch" is 
power. 1 And the power of the Jews and their might 
have disappeared from the surface of the earth, and another 
strong rod, yea, many other strong rods and branches rose 
up to a mighty power and a firm and civilised administra- 
tion. In that the above prophecy has been realised. 

And Ezekiel peace be with him said at the end of 
his book that God showed him a house the plan and the 
bounds of which an angel was directing. He described 
its pillars, its halls, its court-yards, and its doors; and 
the angel told him to remember all these and to ponder 
over them. But since the description of this house was 
too long, I noticed that people either deliberately or 
carelessly have believed it to be unintelligible and am- 
biguous ; therefore I did not mention it; but on the 
evidence of numerous and obvious prophecies and testi- 
monies it is clear that the description of the house 
that God planned and sketched through the prophet 
Ezekiel peace be with him applies to Maccah, because 
it contains features which do not fit the temple of Jeru- 
salem, built after the return from the deportation to 
Babylon. If somebody rejects this, let him put the de- 
scription in harmony with the temple built in Jerusalem, 
in order that we may believe him ; if he fails, let him 
then believe what we have told him and declared to him. 

COROLLARY. 

If a contentious disputant rejects what we have said 
and pretends that the process whereby I have extracted 
the name of the Prophet from the above prophecies is not 
right, on the ground that the sentences are not preceded 
in Syriac by the vocative particle, the reason being that 
when the Syrians use a noun in the vocative form they 

1 The Arabic word used means both "branch " and "sceptre." 

9 



130 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

prefix to it the vocative particle ya } as the Arabs do, the 
following examples shall be his answer : 

It is said in the Torah that God called Adam in Para- 
dise and said to him, " Where art thou, Adam?" 1 i.e. 
O Adam. Simon Cephas spoke to the Jews and said 
" Hear my words, men of Israel," 2 i.e. O men of Israel. 
In the Book of the Acts it is said that the Christ said to 
Paul "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me?" 3 i.e. 
O Saul, O Saul. The angel called Hagar and said " Hagar, 
Sarai's maid, whence earnest thou?" 4 i.e. O Hagar. 
Isaiah said "Seed of my friend Abraham whom I have 
strengthened," 5 i.e. O seed. And Isaiah said " Sing, 
barren, thou that didst not bear,"* i.e. O barren. And he 
said, too, " Seed of evildoers, and children that are cor- 
rupters, you have forsaken the Lord and provoked the 
Holy One of Israel," 7 i.e. O seed of evildoers and O 
children that are corrupters. All these quotations suf- 
fice to prove that the vocative is not preceded in Syriac 
by aya as in Arabic. 8 

As to what the obstinate disputants among the Chris- 
tians say about the Syriac word Mshabbha that it is not 
Muhammad, but Mumajjad or Musabbah, we may answer 
that it is not said to a man "Thou art the praised one," 
nor " Praise be to thee," because this is said only to the 
Most High God, who, in many prophecies, said "O 
Muhammad/' as I have demonstrated." The adversary 

1 Genes, iii. 9. 2 Acts ii. 22. : 'Acts ix. 4. 

4 Genes, xvi. 8. f) Isa. xli. 8. 

6 Isa. liv. i. 7 Isa. i. 4. 

8 The above quotations refer to the Syriac text in which the vocative is 
not preceded by O ! 

9 These three Arabic adjectives although not quite synonymous have 
many identical meanings. The main argument of the author is that the 
Syriac word mshabbha cannot be translated by the Arabic mumajjad and 
musabbah, because these are adjectives applied exclusively to God. This 
holds good especially in the Arabic language, but the translation of 
Mshabbha by Muhammad is lexicographically correct, with the exception 
that the author has built too much on it. So, for instance, when Isaiah 



PROPHECY OF EZEKIEL 131 

who rejects this and wants to make it ambiguous, may 
be asked to say in Syriac " praise be to God ; " he will 
express this sentence and translate it invariably by 
" Shubha Lalaha;" if Shubha is translated by Hamd, 
Mshabbha is, therefore, Muhammad. 1 And the prophet 
David peace be with him said, "Thy throne, God, is 
for ever and ever," i.e. O God. 2 

If this adversary quibbles and is resolute in pre- 
tending that Mshabbha is Mumajjad and not Muhammad, 
let him tell us who is this Mumajjad, of whom God said 
through Habakkuk that " Heaven was eclipsed by the 
resplendence of Mumajjad" and " before whom goes 
death/' and <l whose armies are accompanied by ra- 
pacious birds/' and "at whose command the arrows were 
drenched, and the armies marched at the light of his 
arrows/' and who " subjugated the nations," and "came 
forth for the salvation of his people, and for the de- 
liverance of the inheritance of his fathers ; " 3 or of whom 
David said " Prayer shall be made for him continually, 
and daily shall he be blessed," 4 while this is the saying 
of the believing nations : "O God, pray over Muhammad 
and the family of Muhammad, and bless Muhammad 

says: "Look from thy holy and glorious mountain" (Ixiii. 14-16), the 
apologist separates the adjective "glorious" from its substantive "habita- 
tion," makes a substantive of " glorious " on the ground that the Syriac 
does not require the vocative particle O before the substantive, and finds 
in it the name of Muhammad by translating " Look from thy habitations 
and dwellings, O Muhammad, O Holy One." In Kastallani's Mawahib 
and in Yahsubi's Shifa the word " MushafTah" is one of the names of 
Muhammad (see ibid, the Chapter of the Prophet's names, and cf. the 
following note). 

1 Cf. Khamis, i. 206 ; and Goldziher, in Z.D.M.G. 32, 374. 

2 Ps. xlv. 6. The author has probably forgotten to place this sentence 
in the list of the above quotations, of which it constitutes an integral part, 
and this induces us to suppose that the present MS. is a transcript from a 
first draft in the author's autograph. The same phenomenon occurs in the 
prophecies of Isaiah and in some sayings of the Prophet and the Pious 
Caliphs reported above. 

:l Habak. iii. 2-12 ; see p. 119. 4 Ps. Ixxii. 14 ; see p. 89, 



132 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

and the family of Muhammad." Further, let him tell us 
who is he of whom the prophet Isaiah said "I have 
established thee a witness to the nations, and a king 
and a ruler to the gentiles/' 1 while this is the saying of 
the believing nations : "I testify that there is no God but 
Allah, and that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah. " 

And who would be the Mumajjad, of whom God says 
through Isaiah "I have made thee a name Muhammad ; 
look then from thy habitations, O Holy One, O Muham- 
mad"* If Isaiah meant Mumajjad, who would this 
Mumajjad be, except Muhammad? In this there is suf- 
ficient admonition, warning, and instruction to the man 
whose happiness and instruction are desired by God. 

1 Isa. xlix. 8 ; see p. 112. ' 2 Isa. Ixiii. 14-16 ; see p. 115. 



XXVII. 

THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET DANIEL ABOUT THE 
PROPHETPEACE BE WITH BOTH OF THEM. 

IT corroborates the preceding prophecies of Ezekiel and 
others, and confirms our saying that the Prophet may 
God bless and save him is the last of the prophets, that 
his victory is from God, that he is the owner of the solid 
Empire after which there is no other Empire, that there 
is no nation similar to his nation, and that all the 
prophecies of the prophets which we have quoted are 
about him and refer to him, to the exclusion of every 
other. 

What we find in the prophecy of the prophet Daniel 
peace be with him in the first chapter of his Book, is 
that he said through the Holy Spirit to Nebuchadnezzar 
who had asked him ancnt the interpretation of a vision 
which he had seen, without having previously told it to 
him : " Thou, O King, sawest a great image whose bright- 
ness was excellent, standing before thee. His head was 
of pure and fine gold, his forearm of silver, his belly and 
his thighs of brass, his legs of iron, and his feet part of 
iron and part of potter's clay. And thou sawest that a 
stone was cut out without any cutter, which smote the 
image upon his feet and pounded them ; then the image 
was broken to pieces, with his iron, his brass, his silver, 
and his gold, and was broken in pieces like the thin chaff 
in the threshing-floors ; and the wind carried it away, and 
no trace of it was found. And the stone that smote that 
image became a great mountain which filled the whole 
earth. This is thy vision, O King. Thou art this head 
of gold that thou sawest, and after thee shall arise another 
kingdom inferior to thee. The third kingdom resembling 

(133) 



134 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

brass shall bear rule over all the earth ; and the fourth 
kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron 
breaketh all things in pieces, shall it break everything in 
pieces. As to the foot which was part of iron and part 
of potter's clay, the kingdom shall be partly strong, and 
partly weak; and the union of the kingdom shall be 
shattered. 

44 And in those days the God of heaven shall set up an 
everlasting and eternal kingdom, which shall not change 
nor perish, and which shall not leave to other nations any 
kingdom and power ; but it shall break and destroy all 
the kingdoms ; as to it, it shall stand for ever. This is 
the interpretation of the stone that thou sawest cut out 
of the mountain without any cutter, and that brake in 
pieces the iron, the brass, and the potter's clay. The 
great God hath made known to thee what shall come to 
pass at the end of the time/ 11 

This is an obvious prophecy and a clear allusion which 
does not need further explanation than that of the Prophet 
Daniel peace be with him who has verified all the 
above prophecies and testified that all of them refer to 
Muhammad peace be with him- -and not to another one. 
He has told us that the last kingdom and empire will be 
the kingdom that the God of heaven shall set up, which 
will embrace all the kingdoms of the earth, stand for ever, 
and not leave any other kingdom and power without 
breaking it into pieces and shattering it. The Prophet 
Muhammad may God bless and save him has been 
called the last of the prophets, because all the prophecies 
did not go beyond him, as you see, and because all the 
previous messages have been fulfilled through him, as you 
find and read. After him there was no prophecy and no 
revelation, because God had declared that no kingdom and 
no power shall rise after his kingdom and after his time. 
What objection remains, and what error stands with this 
prophecy ? What would be, with God, the excuse of the 

1 Dan. ii. 31-45. 



PROPHECY OF DANIEL 135 

man who rejects it? Will he have with Him anything 
but torment and fire ? God has said that the " God of 
heaven " will set up this everlasting and eternal kingdom. 

And Daniel peace be with him said in the fourth 
chapter, in confirmation and corroboration of the first 
prophecy : " I saw in my vision that the four winds were 
stirred up, and that because of them the great sea became 
rough and exceedingly stormy. And four great beasts 
came out of the sea, different in form. The first was like 
a lion, and had eagle's wings, and I saw that its wing 
was plucked ; and it rose up, and stood on the earth as a 
man, and a man's heart was given to it. And the second 
beast was like to a bear, standing on one side, and having 
three ribs in its mouth ; and I heard somebody say to it : 
Arise, devour flesh, and eat thy fill of it. The third beast 
was like to a leopard, which had on both its sides four 
wings like the wings of a fowl, and had also four heads; 
and dominion was given to it. And I saw a fourth beast, 
great, strong, and powerful exceedingly ; and it had great 
iron teeth, and devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped 
the residue with the feet of it ; and I saw that it was 
diverse from the other beasts ; and it had ten horns, the 
meaning of which I was considering. 1 And behold there 
came up among these horns another little horn, before 
which three of the other horns were plucked up and fell. 

"Then I wished to know the meaning of the fourth 
beast which was diverse from all the others, what it was 
and what was the meaning of its ten horns, of its iron 
teeth, its brass nails and claws; and what was the 
meaning of its devouring, breaking in pieces, and stamp- 
ing the residue with its feet ; and what was the meaning 
of the little horn which came up from it, before which 
three horns fell, and what was the meaning of the eyes 
that this horn had. And I heard this horn speaking with 

1 The author gives a wrong translation of the Syriac verb istakkal, 
which he renders literally by " I was understanding. " When followed by 
a baith the verb means " to consider." 



136 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

remarkable speech from its mouth ; the growth of this 
little horn, its excrescence, and its stature were more 
stout than those of the others. And it made war with 
the holy saints, and prevailed against them. And the 
Lord said to me : The meaning of the fourth beast is that 
a fourth kingdom shall rise up upon the earth, which 
shall be greater and higher than all the kingdoms. It 
shall dominate all the earth, tread it down, break it in 
pieces, and devour it completely. And the meaning of 
the ten horns is that ten kings shall arise from that king- 
dom ; and another king shall arise after them, greater 
and stronger than the first ones, who shall subdue three 
kings. "' 

This is a clear and distinct prophecy, which does not 
need more explanation and elucidation than those given 
to it by Daniel peace be with him. The fourth beast, 
of which he said that it was great, dreadful, terrible, 
strong, and powerful, is the image of this Arab king- 
dom, about which God said that it shall be the greatest 
and the highest of all kingdoms, and that it shall dominate 
all the earth, tread it down under its feet, and devour it 
completely. It is also the latest kingdom ; and this 
testifies to the fact that the Prophet may God bless and 
save him is the last prophet ; that all prophecies were 
realised through him, ended with him, and did not go be- 
yond him. To this all the preceding prophecies pointed 
and referred. Blessed is the One who predetermined 
this and foretold it to His servants, through His prophets, 
prior to its realization, and who, by means of it, brought 
in a verdict in our favour, and strengthened our failing 
vision to see clearly the weakness of the adversaries' 
argumentation ! 

These are the prophecies of the prophets from the 
children of Israel. I shall relate now the prophecies of 
the Christ peace be with Him and of His disciples, 
after Him. The former have clearly referred to the time 

1 Dan. vii. 2-8 ; 19-24. 



PROPHECY OF DANIEL 137 

of the Prophet peace be with him and distinctly pointed 
to it. Those who interpreted the Books of the Christians 
said that the first beast was the kingdom of Babylon, as 
Daniel said; the second, the kingdom of the Medians; 
and the third, the kingdom of the Persians. The fourth 
is therefore without doubt the kingdom of the Arabs, the 
everlasting kingdom, of which God said that it shall not 
perish, and shall not leave any kingdom and power to 
another nation. This is a corroboration of the saying of 
the prophet Moses peace be with him who, on behalf 
of God, said about Ishmael peace be with him " I have 
blessed him and increased him exceedingly/' J 

I have found also another resplendent and wonderful 
prophecy in the Books of Daniel. He says: " Blessed 
is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three 
hundred and five and thirty days." 2 I have carefully 
examined this, and found that it refers to the Muslim 
faith, and more especially to this 'Abbasid kingdom ; in- 
deed Daniel must have meant by this number either 
days, or months, or years, or a prophetic mystery that 
arithmetic might discover. If somebody says that he 
meant days, the answer is that no joy and no gladdening 
event took place after four years, either to the children 
of Israel or to the world at large. This will also be the 
case after one thousand three hundred and thirty-five 
months, because this number gives one hundred and 
eleven years, and some months. 

If they say that he meant years, the number would 
end with this 'Abbasid kingdom, because from the time 
of Daniel to that of the Christ there are about five 
hundred years. The proof of this is what has been re- 
vealed to him that he and his people shall remain seventy 
weeks in the deportation, then they shall return to Jeru- 
salem, and the Messiah shall be sent 8 And from the 

1 Genes, xvii. 20 (cf. supra, p. 77). In the above lines the word used 
for Medians is Makin, as in p. 95. 

a Dan. xii. 12. 3 Cf. Dan. ix. 24-25. 



138 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

time of the Messiah to this year there are eight hundred 
and sixty-seven years. 1 This, in counting from our time, 
reaches this 'Abbasid kingdom, with a difference of some- 
thing more than thirty years. 2 If somebody says that 
the prophetic days do not mean years, but a mystery that 
arithmetic by alphabet might find out, I thought also of 
that, and discovered that the number of these days was 
equivalent to the total of the numerical value of the 
letters of the words Muhammad Khatimul-Anbia Mahdi 
Majid? because if the numerical value of these vocables 
is calculated, it will give what we have shown ; and they 
are five words. 

If somebody says that it is possible that this number 
might also be obtained for other persons by the same 
arithmetical method as that whereby I found it out for 
the Prophet, that which would testify to the veracity of 

1 The present Defence was certainly written under the reign of Muta- 
wakkil whose murder is fixed on the loth of Dec., 86 1. This apparent 
anachronism may possibly be explained by the chronology adopted by the 
majority of the ancient Syrian writers in connection with the life of the 
Prophet whom they believed to have been born in the year 892 of the 
Seleucids, instead of 882 (Barhebraeus, Chron. Arab. p. 160; edit. Beirut). 
This would give the Christian date 857 (A.H. 243). Further, it is a well- 
known fact that between the Seleucid era adopted in the Syrian Churches 
and that followed in the West there are two years of difference, these having 
been added by some Western writers to the Eastern computation. If we 
take these two years into account we should ascribe the composition of the 
present work to A.D. 855 (A.H. 241), or the 9th year of Mutawakkil's cali- 
phate. On the other hand, the year of the Hijrah 622 is rightly calcu- 
lated by almost all the Syrian historians and fixed at 933 of the Seleucids 
= A.D. 622. See Michael the Syrian, ii. 403 (edit. Chabot). As the years 
of the Seleucids and not those of the Christian era were used in the 
Eastern Churches till about the i6th century, it is even possible to suppose 
that the historians of the Court had miscalculated the time that had elapsed 
between the birth of Christ and the Hijrah. 

2 Prophecy of Daniel: 1335; Daniel's time to that of the author ac- 
cording to his own computation: 1367; the difference: 32. For other 
attempts to apply this number to Muhammad, see BTruni's Chronology 
(edit. Sachau), p. 22. 

3 I.e. " Muhammad, the last prophet, the Mahdi, the illustrious." 



PROPHECY OF DANIEL 139 

what I have said, and ascribe this mystery exclusively to 
the Prophet may God bless and save him is the testi- 
mony of Daniel and of other prophets for him in the way 
I have already demonstrated. We will agree with the one 
who would apply it to another name, if this name carries 
with it testimonies from the prophets like those included 
in the name of the Prophet peace be with him ; but he 
will never be able to find such a name. Indeed, some 
Christians have attributed this number to the Christ, 
through the same method of computation, but I have 
contradicted them, and by testimonies from the prophets, 
have shown clearly that its attribution to the Prophet 
peace be with him is more appropriate than to Christ. 



XXVIIL 

THE PROPHECY OF THE CHRIST ABOUT THE PROPHET- 
MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE BOTH OF THEM. 

ON this subject the Christ peace be with Him uttered 
a sentence recorded and perpetuated in the Book of the 
Apostle John, in the fifteenth chapter of his Gospel : 
11 The Paraclet, the Spirit of truth, whom my father will 
send in my name, He shall teach you everything." 1 The 
Paraclet, then, whom God would send after the Christ, 
and who would testify to the name of the Christ peace 
be with Him is the One who would teach mankind 
everything that they did not know before ; now among 
the disciples of the Christ there has not been, down to 
our time, a single one who taught mankind anything 
besides what the Christ had already taught ; the Paraclet, 
therefore, who taught mankind what they did not know 
before, is the Prophet may God bless and save him 
and the Kur'an is the knowledge that the Christ has 
called " every thing." 

And John said about Him in the sixteenth chapter : 
" If I go not away, the Paraclet will not come unto you. 
And when He is come, He will reprove the world of sin. 
He shall not speak anything of himself, but will direct 
you in all truth, and will announce to you events and 
hidden things." 2 John said, too, about Him: " I will 
pray my Father to give you another Paraclet who will 
be with you for ever." 3 

The interpretation of the saying "He will send in 
my name," is this : as the Christ was called Paraclet, and 

1 Job. xiv. 26 (Syr. The Holy Spirit ") 

2 Job. xvi. 7, 8, 13. 3 Joh. xiv. 16. 

(140) 



PROPHECIES OF CHRIST AND THE APOSTLES 141 

Muhammad also was called by the same name, 1 it was 
not strange on the part of Christ to have said " He will 
send in my name/' that is to say He will be "my name- 
sake " (or : " my equal, " samt). Indeed, it seldom happens 
that the Christ peace be with Him is mentioned in a 
chapter of the Books of the prophets peace be with 
them without a simultaneous mention of the Prophet 
may God bless and save him as adhering to Him and 
making one pair with Him, because he came after Him. 

When I examined carefully the word " Paraclet," and 
searched deeply for the meaning of the saying of the 
Christ, I found another wonderful mystery in it; it is 
that if somebody counts the total of the numerical value 
of its letters, it will be equivalent to the same total as 
that of the letters of the words : Muhammad bin 'Abdallah, 
an-N abbiyul-Hadi? If somebody says that one number 
is missing, because the word is Paracleta? we will answer 
that the letter A It/is a paragogical addition to the Syriac 
nouns. The words which would exactly be equivalent to 
the numerical value of the word, without any addition and 
diminution, are Muhammad Rasulun Hablbun Tayyibun.* 
If someone says that the same number is obtainable from 
other names, this will not be possible for him until he 
brings forth, from a scriptural evidence, the man who 
would answer to the description given by the Christ in 
His saying : 4< The Paraclet whom He will send, the Spirit 
of truth whom my Father will send in my name, He shall 
teach you everything; " and he will not be able to find a 
way for that. 

And the disciple John said in his Epistle found in the 
Book of the Acts which is the history of the Apostles : 5 

1 In the Shifa of Yahsubi " Paraclet " is given as a name of Muham- 
mad. (In the chapter of the Prophet's names.) 

* I.e. " Muhammad, the rightly guiding Prophet, son of 'Abdallah." 

3 According to the Syriac pronunciation. 

4 I.e. " Muhammad is a beloved and good apostle." 

8 The Bible used by the author incorporated the Acts and the Catholic 
Epistles under one title Praxis^ as it is in the Syrian Churches. 



142 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

* 'My beloved, believe not every spirit, but discern the 
spirits that are of God. Every spirit that confesseth that 
Jesus Christ hath come and was in flesh is of God, and 
every spirit that confesseth not that the Christ was in 
flesh, is not of God." 1 The Prophet may God bless 
and save him has believed that the Christ has come, 
that He was in flesh, and that He was the " Spirit of God 
and His word which He cast into Mary." 2 His spirit, 
therefore, is, on the testimony of John and of others, a 
true and just spirit, coming from the Most High God, 
and the spirit of those who pretend that the Christ is 
neither in flesh nor a man is from somebody outside God. 

And Simon Cephas, the head of the Apostles, said in 
the Book of the Acts: "The time hath come that judg- 
ment must begin at the house of God." 3 The interpreta- 
tion of this is that the meaning of the house of God 
mentioned by the Apostle is Maccah, and it is there and 
not at another place that the new judgment began. If 
somebody says that he meant the judgment of the Jews, 
the answer is that the Christ had already told them that 
" There shall not be left in the temple one stone upon 
another that shall not be thrown down, and remain in 
destruction till the day of the Resurrection." 4 

It has become evident that the new judgment 
mentioned by the Apostle is the religion of Islam and its 
judgment. This is similar to the saying of the prophet 
Zephaniah peace be with him who said on behalf of 
God : " I will renew to the people a chosen language ; " 6 
Arabic was the new and the chosen language for the 
new judgment and religion. Daniel, too peace be with 
him said in this sense what we have already mentioned. 
There was not in that time a house related to God to 
which the adversary might cling and say that the judg- 
ment began there, except Maccah. If somebody says that 

1 1 Job. iv. 1-3. 2 Kur. iv. 169. 

* 1 Pet. iv. 17. 4 Matth. xxiv. 2, etc. 

*Zeph. iii. 9 (cf. supra, p. 121). 



PROPHECIES OF CHRIST AND THE APOSTLES 143 

the Apostle meant the Christian religion, how could he 
say about a religion and a judgment which had already 
appeared for some time : " The time hath come that it 
must begin " ? This is an impossible hypothesis. 

And the evangelist Luke reports in the eleventh 
chapter of his Gospel that the Christ said to His dis- 
ciples : " When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and 
shoes, were ye harmed and lacked ye in anything? 
And they said: No. Then He said: But now he that 
hath no purse let him buy one, and likewise a scrip ; 
and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and 
buy a sword with it for himself/' 1 The laws and pre- 
scriptions that the Christ had promulgated and preached 
were only submission, resignation, and obedience ; when, 
then, at the end of His life He ordered His disciples and 
the standard-bearers of His religion to sell their gar- 
ments in order to buy swords, men of discernment and in- 
telligence know that He referred to another Dispensation, 
viz. to that of the Prophet may God bless and save him 
in pointing to his swords and his arrows which the 
prophets had described prior to His coming. 

Simon Cephas unsheathed his sword and drew it out 
of its scabbard, in the night in which the Jews seized 
the Christ, and struck with it one of the soldiers, and cut 
off his ear ; but the Christ peace be with Him took it 
with His hand and returned it back to its place in the 
soldier's head, and it became immediately as sound as it 
was before ; and then He said to Simon : " Put up the 
sword into the sheath. He who draws the sword shall 
be killed with the sword." 2 In this He referred to the 
sword-drawers of His nation and His followers, but He 
referred to the Muslim Dispensation when He ordered 
His disciples to sell their garments in order to buy 
swords ; and swords are not bought except for the sake 
of unsheathing them and striking with them. 

J Luk. xxii. 35-36. 

2 Matth. xxvi. 51-52 ; Job. xviii. 10-11 ; Luk. xxii. 50-51. 



144 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

And Paul, the foremost among the Christians, whom 
they call an apostle, said in his Epistle to the Galatians : 
"Abraham had two sons, the one by a bond-maid, the 
other by a free-woman. But he who was of the bond- 
woman was like other people, but he of the free-woman 
was by promise from God. Both are an allegory for the 
two laws and covenants. Hagar is compared with Mount 
Sinai, which is in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem 
which now is. But Jerusalem, which is in heaven, 
answereth to his free wife." 1 Paul has settled many 
points by this saying. The first is that Ishmael and 
Hagar had inhabited the country of the Arabs, which he 
called the countries of Arabia ; the second is that Mount 
Sinai, which is in Syria, extends and links up with the 
desert countries, since he says that Hagar is compared 
with Mount Sinai, which is in the countries of Arabia ; 
and Sinai is the mountain mentioned in the Torah at the 
beginning of these prophecies : " The Lord came from 
Sinai, and rose up from Seir, and appeared from Mount 
Paran." 2 In this Paul testified that the Lord, who ac- 
cording to the saying of the Torah, came from Sinai, was 
the Prophet may God bless and save him and that 
it was he who appeared in the countries of Arabia. We 
have demonstrated above that the meaning of the word 
"Lord 11 refers to " prophets " and to " lords/' What 
would be clearer and more distinct than the mention by 
name of the countries of Arabia? He meant by this 
vocable the country of the Arabs, but he wrote it in a 
foreign and unnatural manner, Arab instead of 'Arab* 

The third meaning is that Jerusalem answers to 
Maccah ; and the fourth is that this second law and this 
second covenant are, without any doubt, from heaven. 
Paul called both of them by one name, and did not dis- 

i Gal. iv. 22-26. a Deut. xxxiii. 2. Cf. supra p. 86. 

8 The author refers to the Syriac version where, curiously enough, the 
word is written in the Greek way without the strong guttural at the 
beginning. 



PROPHECIES OF CHRIST AND THE APOSTLES 145 

tinguish between them in any way. As to the supremacy 
that he gave to the free-woman, and to his saying that 
the son of the bond-woman was not born by promise, 
it is one-sidedness and prejudice on his part, because in 
the convincing passages of the Torah about Ishmael, 
which I have quoted above, there is sufficient evidence 
to show that he also was born, not only by one promise, 
but by several promises. 

These are clear prophecies and established facts, per- 
petuated throughout the ages, which, if somebody apart 
from the Muslims claims, his only gain will be the dead- 
liest arrow and the greatest lie ; this will only be done 
by a wretched Jew or a babbling Christian, excusing 
with it themselves, and deceiving themselves and others. 
It is indeed evident to the Christians especially, and to 
the Jews generally, that God has intensified His wrath 
against the Children of Israel, has cursed them, forsaken 
them and their religion, and told them that He will burn 
the stem from which they multiplied, destroy the mass 
of them, and plant others in the desert and in the waste 
and dry land. On this subject, how great is my amaze- 
ment at the Jews, who avow all these things and do not 
go beyond contemplating them, and burden themselves 
with claims through which they become full of illusion 
and deception. To this the Christians bear witness by 
their evidence against the Jews, morning and evening, 
that God has completely destroyed them, erased their 
traces from the register of the earth, and annihilated the 
image of their nation. 

As to the community of the Christ peace be with Him 
they have no right to claim all the prophecies that I 
have succinctly quoted about the Prophet may God bless 
and save him. They cannot claim to have made kings 
captives, to have enslaved princes and conducted them 
linked together with bonds and fetters, to have inherited 
desert and waste lands, to have beheaded people, to have 
multiplied killing and havoc in the earth, and other 

10 



146 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

peculiarities which are fitting and due only to Ishmael 
and Hagar and their descendants, and to Maccah and its 
pilgrims. 

Moreover, many prophets have distinctly mentioned 
by name the Prophet may God bless and save him- 
have described him with his sword-bearers and archers, 
and told that death and rapacious birds shall go before 
his armies, and that his country shall be overcrowded 
with numerous caravans of camels and files of animals, 
and that he shall destroy the nations and the kings 
opposing him. All these confirm his religion, enhance 
his rank, and testify to the veracity of what his mes- 
sengers have told about him. This is especially the case 
with Daniel, who closed all the prophecies with some- 
thing that expels every doubt, and this is that the God 
of heaven will set up an everlasting kingdom which shall 
not change and perish. He who does not submit to him 
that God has chosen and raised is to be scorned and 
despised. 



XXIX. 

THE ANSWER TO THOSE WHO HAVE SAID THAT THE 
REFUGEES " AND THE HELPERS EMBRACED THE 
FAITH WITHOUT ANY SIGN. 

SOMEBODY might say something similar to what was used 
as an argument by an uncle of mine renowned for his 
ability in discussion and for the superiority of his intel- 
ligence, and known in the regions of 'Irak and Khura- 
san by the name of Abu Zakkar Yahya ibn-Nu'man. In 
one of the books that he wrote : Answer to Adherents to 
Religions* he declared that he examined the reasons why 
many Refugees and first disciples, both men and women, 
embraced Islam, and he did not find anyone who adhered 
to it by reason of a sign that he had seen or a miracle 
that he could report. This was a strong objection 
against Islam for me also, and I did not cease to be de- 
ceived and fascinated by it, until I seceded from his faith ; 
I found then that the answer to it was easy, and the out- 
let from it broad. Indeed, if we retort with the same 
argument against them, a statement will be credited to 
us, which if they were to destroy, the prophecies of many 
of their prophets would also be destroyed. The entry of 
some people into the religion of a prophet without having 
seen a miracle from him is not something which would 
make vain all the other miracles of that prophet, nor is 
the abstention of a prophet from showing a sign on a 
given occasion something which would give him the lie. 

The prophet Ezekiel peace be with him says in the 
tenth chapter that a company from the children of Israel 
came to him to test him, and to ask him some questions. 
The answer that Ezekiel gave them was : " God has told 

1 This book seems to be lost. 

(147) 



I 4 8 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

me, and has ordered me to tell you, that the Lord of 
Lords says : I swear by My name that I am the living 
one, and that I shall not give any answer to what you 
are asking." 1 

As to the Christ peace be with Him a great crowd 
followed Him and believed in Him without having seen 
any sign from Him. About this there is the saying of 
the evangelist Matthew, found in the fourth chapter of 
his Gospel, to the effect that when the Christ peace be 
with Him " was walking by the shore of the sea of 
Galilee, He saw two brethren, one of them was Simon 
whom He called Cephas to whom He gave the direction 
of the affairs of His nation, and whom He constituted 
the foundation of His religion and Andrew, his brother, 
fishing in the sea. He made a sign to them and said to 
them : " Follow Me, and I will make you after this day 
fishers of men ; and they forthwith left their nets and 
followed Him." 2 And Matthew said in this chapter that 
the Christ " going on from thence, saw other two breth- 
ren, James the son of Zebedee, and John, fishing with 
their father ; He called them to His faith, and they left 
their father and followed Him." 3 And Matthew said in 
this chapter that when the Christ "passed forth from 
thence, He saw a publican called Matthew, and said unto 
him : Follow Me ; and he went with Him." 4 He means 
his own self, because he is the evangelist Matthew, one 
of the four who wrote the Gospel. 

These are five from the heads, the foremost, and the 
earliest of the twelve Apostles, and the Gospel declares 
that they followed the Christ without having seen any 
sign and heard any convincing word from Him, apart 
from a mere call. Would that I knew what harm has 
come to the Christ from that, or what has shocked my 
uncle Abu Zakkar and those who subscribe to his opinion, 
from the fact that those who followed the Prophet may 

1 Ezek. xx. 1-3. a Matth. iv. 18-20. 

* Matth, iv. 21-22. 4 Matth. ix. 9. 



REFUGEES AND HELPERS 149 

God bless and save him did so without having seen a 
sign from him. If what we have mentioned necessarily 
annuls the remaining miracles of the Christ peace be 
with Him it is then that the signs of the Prophet may 
God bless and save him will necessarily be annulled, on 
the ground that those who embraced his religion did so 
without having seen a sign from him. 

Some people came to the Christ peace be with Him 
asking Him for a sign ; and He not only did not show 
them any sign, but rebuked them strongly and reproved 
them with their generations. The evangelist Matthew 
bears witness to that, in the twelfth chapter, and tells 
that a company of the Jews came to the Christ and asked 
Him for a sign, but He answered them and said: "The 
evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign ; and 
there shall be no sign given to it, but the sign of the 
prophet Jonas/ 11 He told them that He would not show 
them a sign at all, because they were from the evil genera- 
tion, meaning by that all the race of the Jews. As to 
the sign of Jonas which He mentioned, it is his three- 
days stay in the whale's belly ; further, this is not one of 
the prophecies of the Christ, but it is one of the signs 
of Jonas ; and Jonas was a long period of time before 
Him. A sign consists in wonders that a prophet shows 
to onlookers, which nobody besides him is able to per- 
form ; or in his prophesying about things hidden from 
him, which are realised in his time. 

If somebody says: "My sign is that Moses rent the 
sea, and the Christ quickened a dead man/* it will not be 
accepted from him, because this is an argument in favour 
of another one, and not of himself; however, no one can 
think of the Christ that He was short of answers, nor 
that He contradicted Himself, nor that He promised 
something from which He afterwards desisted, nor that 
He said that He would not do something which He did. 
His saying, therefore, to those of the Children of Israel 

1 M atth. xii. 39. 



ISO BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

who had asked Him for a sign, that there would be no 
answer to their demand, emanates either from God or 
from Himself; if it emanates from God, God then did 
the contrary of what He said to them, because He showed 
them signs at the hands of the Christ, after this event ; 
and if it emanates from Himself, then the Christ also did 
the contrary of what He said, and disagreed with His 
first saying; and this does not suit Him, and is incon- 
ceivable of somebody like Him. As to me, I count this 
also as an alteration and corruption in the text of the 
Gospel, by translators and copyists. 

And Matthew said in the sixteenth chapter that when 
the Jews saw the Christ calling people and turning them 
away from Judaism, they gathered to Him and said : " By 
what authority doest thou what we see, and who gave 
thee this authority ? " In answer to them Jesus said : " I 
also will ask you one thing, which if ye tell Me, I in like 
wise will tell you about your question. Tell Me about 
the baptism of John, son of Zacharias, whence was it? 
From heaven, or from earth ? " The crowd abstained 
from answering, and said " We do not know ; " and the 
Christ said " Neither tell I you by what authority I 
work/' 1 We do not see that He answered the crowd 
about what they had asked Him, but He simply competed 
with them by propounding another question to them ; 
and no one was able to find fault with Him on this 
account. 

And Matthew said in the sixth 2 chapter that Pilate, 
the representative of the King of the Romans, said to 
the Christ, when the Jews brought Him to him : " I 
adjure thee by the truth of God to tell me : art thou the 
Christ, son of God, or not ? " And the Christ peace be 
with Him did not say to him more than "Thou hast 
said/' 8 There is neither affirmation nor negation in this 
saying, and one is allowed to say that He meant to dispel 
and discard this attribution from Himself, and to rebuke 

1 Matth. xxi. 23-28. 2 Sic Cod. 3 Matth. xxvi. 63-64. 



REFUGEES AND HELPERS 151 

those who ascribed it to Him ; if not, why did He not say 
" I am the son of God," when He was asked ? And why 
did He not show a sign to clear up the question, and 
put the Jews to shame and confusion ? This also is a 
question to which the Christ gave no answer, and it has 
not prejudiced the dignity of His rank nor His previous 
signs. 

And it is said in the Gospel which is in the hands of 
the Christians that the Jews said to the Christ : " If thou 
be the son of God, come down from the cross, that we 
may believe in Thee ; " 1 and He did not do it, nor did 
He show any sign ; and we do not say, because of this, 
that He had no previous sign ; indeed He foresaw more 
than anybody else the issues of this question, and what 
God wanted from Him, or had determined for Him. 

More forceful is what Matthew said in the second 
chapter, that Satan said to the Christ when he was temp- 
ting Him : " If thou be the son of God, direct these stones 
to become bread ; " and the Christ did not say to him 
more than: "It is written in the Books of Revelation 
that man shall not live by bread alone, but by every 
word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. 112 

Do you not see may God guide you that the Christ 
peace be with Him and other prophets were asked 
questions to which they gave no answers, and were re- 
quested to perform miracles which they did not perform, 
because God had not permitted them to act otherwise 
and had not opened to them at the moment the doors of 
miracles ? And the disciples asked the Christ peace be 
with Him about the Hour ; and He said : " This is a 
secret and a hidden thing from Me, which God alone 
knoweth." 3 Since this has not been a cause of blame 
and reprobation to the Christ, it likewise must not be for 
the Prophet may God bless and save him. 

These are convincing and fair replies and answers, 

1 Matth. xxvii. 40, etc. 3 Matth. iv. 3-4, 

3 Matth. xxiv. 36, etc. 



152 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

and cogent arguments, to that proposition and contention 
to which the disciples of my uncle Abu Zakkar and those 
who subscribe to his opinion, cling. I did not find a 
single Christian scholar, either in ancient or in modern 
times, who argued with this point against the Muslimst 
except my uncle ; but God has refuted and explained it 
by His grace and favour, and by the wisdom, the replies, 
and the good suggestions of the Commander of the Faith- 
ful may God strengthen him and by what I profited 
by them. 

Now exercise your mind may God guide you and 
let not your intelligence be idle ; know that you have 
been created for a great task, and that you are standing 
at the brink of heaven or of Fire ; he with whom this 
brink crumbles away into Fire 1 shall be in the abyss of 
everlasting shame, eternal regret and torment, which the 
Christ peace be with Him has described as a fire 
which is not quenched, and as worms which do not die ; 2 
but he whom truth takes up to the courts of heaven and 
to the altitudes of the heavenly Gardens, shall be happy 
and a winner of a great victory, and shall possess 
eternal peace and happiness, which no eye has seen and 
of which no ear has heard. Give, therefore, good advice 
to your souls, and do not deceive them ; be true to them, 
and do not beguile them. Truth has become clear, the 
hiding veil has been withdrawn, and evidence has become 
manifest 

1 Kur. ix. no. a Mark, ix. 44, etc. 



XXX. 

THE ANSWER TO THOSE WHO HAVE BLAMED ISLAM IN 
ONE OF ITS PRACTICES OR IN ONE OF ITS PRESCRIP- 
TIONS. 

IF a man from the People of the Book reviles one of the 
rules of the faith, and one of the practices of the Mus- 
lims, he will be grossly unjust to us, will repudiate 
and blame all the prophets, and will expose himself to sin 
and punishment. If they blame sacrifices, they are in- 
herited from Abraham ami from all the prophets of his 
posterity peace be with them. I they reprobate cir- 
cumcision, it was practised by the Christ and by those 
who preceded Him. If they condemn divorce, their own 
Books will render their endeavour fruitless ; and if they 
condemn swearing by God, it is the saying of the Most 
High to His prophets; 1 the prophet Isaiah peace be 
with him declared on behalf of God : " I drew the 
permanent word out of My mouth, that unto Me every 
knee shall bow, and by Me every tongue shall swear. " 2 
And Paul, whom the Christians call an apostle, said that 
God made His promises to Abraham, in his seed, and 
swore to him by Himself. 3 And Daniel said that the 
angel who appeared to him lifted his hand to heaven and 
swore by the Eternal Merciful that all that he had said 
would surely take place. 4 

If they blame the Holy War, Abraham fought the 
four kings who had made inroads into the country of 
Jazlrah to invade its inhabitants ; he protected his 
neighbours and the people with whom he was living, 

1 One line of the text is much damaged here, and some words have 
only been conjectured. 

3 Isa. xlv. 23. 3 Cf. Galat. iii. 16. 4 Cf. Dan. xii. 7. 

053) 



154 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

destroyed the armies of the enemy with his servants and 
men born in his house, and won from this fact honour, 
credit, eternal remembrance, and perpetual praise ; he 
gave back to their respective kings all the booty and the 
men he saved, and did not hold back anything from the 
spoils, not even a bead or a utensil, after these kings had 
abandoned their countries and surrendered them. 1 

And Joshua, son of Nun, killed thirty-one kings from 
the kings of Syria, J and did not leave in one of their 
towns called 'Ani 3 a single dweller, nor a man to blow 
the fire ; and he did not call them to religion, nor did he 
require tribute and capitation from them, nor did he 
receive ransom from them, as the Muslims do. 

And the prophet Samuel peace be with him said in 
the twelfth chapter that the prophet David peace be 
with him raided a Syrian country called Philistia, and 
did not leave there a single man nor a single woman 
without killing them. He then took sheep, cattle, asses, 
and camels, and swept away with him goods, treasures, 
and furniture, without calling the inhabitants either to 
religion, or to pay tribute, or to submit. 4 And the Book 
of Samuel relates that David was hungry one day, and 
sent his retainers to a certain man in search of food, and 
they did not bring him anything. He then went with 
his men to attack this man and the inhabitants of his 
village ; but behold, he saw the man's wife coming to 
meet him, bringing him food and wine, for fear that he 
should punish her husband. 5 He accepted that from her, 
and was satisfied ; and his wrath cooled down and left 
him. This and similar deeds of prophets are neither 
reprobated nor blamed. 

As to the Prophet may God bless and save him he 
ordered, with persuasion and dissuasion, to worship One, 
Eternal, and Omnipotent God, in order that religion 

1 Cf. Gen. xiv. 5 seq. 2 Josh. xii. 24. 

3 Probably 'At (cf. Josh. viii. I seq.). 

4 Cf. I Sam. xxvii. 8 seq. 5 Cf. I Sam. xxv. 2-36. 



REVILERS OF ISLAM 155 

might be One and the Supreme Being One. He who 
responds to that has the prerogatives and the obligations 
of the Muslims ; and he who does not respond but gives 
tribute on his hand in an humble condition, 1 he spares 
his blood with this tribute and upon his submission 
has a right to the compact of protection. This point 
constitutes a fine subject of meditation for the un- 
believers ; indeed, it lowers their amour-propre and their 
pride, and calls the people of honour and self-esteem 
among them to change their state of lowliness, and their 
compact of protection by means of tribute, for the glory 
of dignity and freedom. If they are averse to tribute 
and submission, war shall be behind them. 

And Moses peace be with him did more than that. 
When he ordered the Children of Israel to leave Egypt 
and go away, he told them that the Most High God had 
ordered that every one of them should borrow the gar- 
ments of his neighbour and acquaintance and the jewels of 
their wives and daughters, and that they should inform 
them that it was for the occasion of one of their feasts. 
The Egyptian people yielded to this, adorned the 
Israelites with what they had, and lent them both their 
useful and necessary things. The Children of Israel 
numbered then about six hundred thousand combatants. 
When all was gathered to them and was in their posses- 
sion, they journeyed all the night and departed one and 
all. And God rent the sea for them, and they crossed it ; 
Pharaoh sought after them, and they dreaded him, but 
God drowned Pharaoh, and set the heart of the Israelites 
at rest from him.' 2 The owners of those borrowed objects, 
and their wives and daughters were deprived of their 
loaned articles ; and their treasures, a griffin carried them 
away ; s and they bit their fingers out of regret. 

All this was not unlawful and illicit, but was simply 
the right of booty and spoils ; for the world belongs to 

1 Kur. ix. 29. 2 Cf. Exod. xi. 2 ; xii. 35-37, etc. 

3 A proverb meaning "that they would not see them again." 



i$6 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

the Most High God, and its Kingdom and ornaments 
belong to those of His servants upon whom He bestows 
them, as He said in His Book : " Thou givest the King- 
dom to whomsoever Thou pleasest, and strippest the 
Kingdom from whomsoever Thou pleasest." 1 And in- 
asmuch as what was done by the prophets whom we 
have mentioned is not shameful and sinful, but as some- 
thing done by way of tacit authorisation and good-will 
of God, 2 so also are to be considered the holy war 
against the polytheists and the attacks against the un- 
believers, the injunction of which God laid upon the 
Prophet may God bless and save him. Without holy 
war no religion could stand, no inviolable thing could 
be safe, no gap could be filled, and the Muslims would 
become the prey and possession of their enemies. Men 
would scarcely remain in a religion with such standing 
without passing to what is higher and safer. 

The Christ peace be with Him had forbidden war 
and given warning against its causes in saying : " Who- 
soever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain ; 
whosoever taketh away thy coat, give him thy cloak 
also ; whosoever shall smite thee on thy cheek, turn to 
him the other also/' 3 By this order the Christ peace 
be with Him left but little spiritual and temporal power 
to His followers, and transferred their heritage to the 
members of another nation who stirred war in East and 
West, and kindled it with spears and swords as far as the 
countries of the Greeks, of the Franks, of the tent-dwell- 
ing Turanians, 4 and of the Armenians. Outside these 
countries what Christians are to be found in the country 

1 Kur. iii. 25. a Kur. Ivii. 20. 

3 Matth. v. 39-40 ; Luk. vi. 29. 

4 This is probably the earliest mention made of the Turanians in any 
Christian or Islamic work. See A Manual on the Turanians and Tur- 
anianism, London, 1918, pp. 12-14. The author appears to believe that 
at least a great number of the Turanian Turks were Christian in his time, 
and seems to imply that Turanian is not absolutely identical with Turk. 
The habitat of the Turanians was probably not very far from Mongolia. 



REVILERS OF ISLAM 157 

of the Turks except a small and despicable quantity of 
Nestorians scattered among the nations? or what are 
those found among the Arabs except a sprinkling of Jaco- 
bites and Melchites ? 

Then we have seen that the Christ peace be with 
Him gave permission ultimately to take swords ; and in 
that he abrogated the first order. He said, indeed, to His 
disciples : " Let each one of you sell his garment and buy 
a sword with it for himself " l And He said : " Think 
not I am come to sow peace on earth, but war." 2 He 
who slurs Islam in what has been considered good, and 
put in practice, by the prophets whom we have mention- 
ed, deviates from the path of justice. 

If somebody reprobates the saying of the Prophet 
may God bless and save him, that in the world to come 
there is food and drink, the answer would be that the 
Christ peace be with Him declared also such a thing 
to His disciples when He drank with them and said to 
them : " I will not drink of this fruit of the vine, until I 
drink it another time with you in the kingdom of heaven." 3 
In this He declared that in heaven there is wine and 
drink ; and where drink is found, food and pleasures are 
not blamed. And Luke declares in his Gospel that the 
Christ peace be with Him said: "You shall eat and 
drink at the table of my Father." 4 And John declares 
that the Christ peace be with Him said : " There are 
many mansions and dwellings at my Father's." 5 

All these confirm the existence of food and drink in 
the world to come, and of mansions and pleasures, ac- 
cording to what the Most High God said in His Book : 
"And gardens shall they have therein and lasting 
pleasure. 1 ' 8 

1 Luk. xxii. 36 (cf. supra, p. 143), 2 Matth. x. 34. 

8 Matth. xxvi. 29. 4 Luk. xxii. 30. 

9 Job. xiv. 2. 6 Kur. ix. 21. 



XXXI. 

THE ANSWER TO THOSE WHO REPROBATE THE FACT 
THAT THE PROPHETMAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE 
HIM -CONTRADICTED MOSES AND CHRIST PEACE BE 
WITH BOTH OF THEM IN CHANGING THE RULES OF 
THE TORAH AND THE GOSPEL. 

IF one of those adversaries who penetrate deeply into 
science contends that the Prophet may God bless and 
save him believed in the Torah and the Gospel in his 
words, but disagreed with them in his actions, and that 
in the fact of his confirming them once and contradicting 
them another time there are in him indications of incon- 
sistency, we will reply that God may He be blessed and 
exalted is Wise, Knower, Compassionate, Merciful ; 
creatures are for Him, guidance is from Him, power and 
strength are by Him ; and His servants are not to object 
to what He does, nor to interfere with His prescience 
and the secrets of His Providence, but they should sub- 
mit and obey. 

The most High God said through Moses peace be 
with him "God will raise you up a prophet from 
amongst your brethren, like unto me ; hearken unto 
him ; and he who does not hearken unto him, I will 
avenge myself on him." 1 The Prophet peace be with 
him appeared from amongst the brethren of the Jews, 
followed the prescriptions of God, and believed in Moses, 
of whom he said that "he conversed with God," 2 and 
believed also in Jesus, of whom he said that He was 
" The Spirit of God and His Word, whom He has chosen, 
honoured, and taken to heaven ; and He is with Him ; " 3 

1 Deut. xviii. 18-19 (cf. supra, p. 85). 

2 Iur. iv. 164, etc. 8 Kur. iv. 156, 169, etc. 

058) 



THE PROPHET AND THE BIBLE 159 

and he did not contradict Moses in the article of the unity 
of God, nor did he utter on this subject ambiguities 
and equivocations as the Christians did, but he openly 
and clearly proclaimed it, and rendered faith pure and 
his saying precise. Moreover, all the prophets agreed 
with him with regard to the Kiblah } divorce, circum- 
cision, fight against the unbelievers, protection of chil- 
dren by forcible means, and retaliation. And he multi- 
plied sacrifices to the Most High God alone, and renewed 
to his nation rules and prescriptions which tally with 
the order of God ; and the servants of God have nothing 
left to them but to obey God through him. 

If people were permitted to slight and reprobate 
divine orders and economy of this kind, one would be 
allowed to say about the Christ that He once believed 
in the Torah and said : " I am not come to destroy it, 
but to fulfil it ; verily, I say unto you, Till heaven and 
earth pass, one letter shall not pass from it," 1 and then 
He openly contradicted Moses, and flung the Torah aside, 
to such an extent that the learned men of His commun- 
ity have reason to say openly and publicly : " The Old 
Testament has passed and gone, and the New Testament 
has come and appeared ; 2 they mean by Old Testament 
the Torah and its laws and the other Books of the pro- 
phets, and by New Testament the Gospel and the Books 
of the Apostles. As to the pillar of the Torah the prop 
of Judaism its rites, its circumcision, its sacrifices, its 
feasts, its law of retaliation, its decisions, its priesthood, 
and its altars, the Christ peace be with Him has abro- 
gated and annulled all of them. He did not leave the 
Jews a feast, without abolishing it ; a Sabbath, without 
infringing it ; a circumcision, without gently rejecting 
it; a sacrifice, without forbidding it; an altar, without 
despoiling it ; and a priest, without calling him adul- 
terous and profligate. 

1 Matth. v. 17-18. 

a This thought is frequently found in the East Syrian or Nestorian 
Breviary. 



160 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

Matthew said in the thirteenth chapter that the 
Christ peace be with Him " went on the Sabbath 
day through the cornfields, and His disciples were an- 
hungred, and began to pluck the ears of corn and to 
eat ; " l and He did not blame their action, nor did He 
reprobate it. And Matthew said in this chapter 2 that 
the Christ, pointing to the Children of Israel who were 
present with Him, said : " You have heard the Torah 
say, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give 
her a writing of divorcement ; but I say unto you that 
whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause 
of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery, and who- 
soever shall marry a divorced woman shall commit 
adultery." 3 One might say, in disapprobation of this 
saying: What has a husband to do with a wife who 
committed sorcery, or became infidel, or poisoned her 
parents, or killed her child, or had intercourse with him ? 
Can he not divorce her for all these ? But how ? That 
would be impossible for him, because the Christ has per- 
mitted divorce only in case of adultery. 

And He said in this chapter : " You have heard that 
it has been said in the Books of Revelation : A tooth for 
a tooth, and an eye for an eye ; but I say unto you : 
Whosoever shall smite thee on thy cheek, turn to him 
the other cheek also, and whosoever shall ask thee, re- 
fuse him not." 4 And Paul, who has the precedence 
among them, and whom they obey, said : 4< Circumcision 
is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing." 5 In this he 
openly abolished circumcision. This and similar things 
are not considered blameable and reprehensible on the 
part of Christ may God bless and save Him ; similarly, 
the new rules, the additions to, and the subtractions from, 
the rules of the Torah and the Gospel, which the Prophet 
may God bless and save him has innovated, are not 
to be reprobated and blamed. 

1 Matth. xii. i. 2 Sic Cod. 

8 Matth. v. 31-32. 4 Matth. v. 39-40, 42. I Cor. vii. 19. 



XXXIL 

THE ANSWER TO THOSE WHO HAVE PRETENDED THAT 
NO ONE BUT THE CHRIST PEACE BE WITH HIM 
MENTIONED THE RESURRECTION. 

THE Christians have said that nobody but the Christ has 
made known the Resurrection, and proclaimed the Last 
Day and the Eevivification. By my life, He has pro- 
claimed it and announced it in clear words, and God has 
honoured Him with an honour greater than that of His 
predecessors ; but the prophets who preceded Him 
knew it and mentioned it. The prophet Moses said on 
behalf of God : " I am alone, and there is no God besides 
Me; I kill and I make alive." 1 And the prophet David 
said in the Psalter: "The giants shall be resuscitated 
and revivified, and they shall glorify Thee, O Lord, and 
they shall declare that Thy grace is in the graves/' 2 And 
God may He be blessed and exalted said also through 
him : " I will revivify them and resuscitate them from 
the teeth of the lions and from the depths of the sea." 3 
And the prophet Daniel peace be with Him said : "A 
great multitude shall be resuscitated from the graves, 
some to everlasting life, and some to perdition and to the 
contempt of their companions for ever." 4 And Hannah 
the prophetess peace be with her said in the Book of 
the prophet Samuel peace be with him "The Lord 
killeth and maketh alive ; He bringeth down to the grave, 
and bringeth up from it." 5 And the Most High God said 
to Daniel peace be with him "Go and lie down (in 
conformity with) the decreed order ; and thou shalt rise, 
at the appointed moment, at the end of the world." 6 

J Deut. xxxii. 39. 2 Ps. Ixxxviii. 10. 8 Ps. Ixviii. 22 

4 Dan. xii. 2. 5 1. Sam. ii. 6. 6 Dan. xii. 13. 

(161) II 



XXXIII. 

CONCLUSION. 

Now that you know may God guide you that our 
common agreement is in accordance with your common 
agreement on the point that God is just, that He loves 
justice and those who practise it, and that He has for- 
bidden injustice and iniquity, it is just and fair that you 
should look back into the motives for which you have 
accepted your religion and see what they are. If it be- 
comes evident to you that they are only possible and 
praiseworthy stories transmitted to you by a successor 
from his predecessor, and by a last from a first man, it is 
also through such stories that we have accepted the 
Prophet peace be with him. 

MoFeover, among those who handed down to you 
those stories of yours, there was none who claimed that 
he had taken them from an eye-witness among his fathers 
or grandfathers who had seen the Christ or Moses 
peace be with them as the Arabs claim on the authority 
of their fathers and their grandfathers who had seen the 
Prophet peace be with him. Indeed, a man among the 
Arabs records, on the authority of his grandfather or the 
grandfather of his grandfather, or a man of his relatives, 
what they have seen and transmitted to their successors. 
As to your stories, they have been handed down to you 
by a man of i Irak, who took them from a man of Jazirah, 
who in his turn took them from a man of Syria, who 
'himself took them from an Hebrew; or by a Persian, 
who took them from a Greek; or by an Eastern, who 
took them from a Western, through obscure and irregular 
channels. How, then, could you rpfute or blame the 
man who says : "I have accepted this religion of Islam 



CONCLUSION 163 

and believed in it by means of the evidences and testi- 
monies through which you have accepted your own 
religion ?"; or who says: "When I saw members of a 
nation great in rank and high in dignity with regard to 
number, power, piety, wisdom, and uprightness, telling me 
what we have related above, as having heard it from 
their fathers and grandfathers, and showing a Book they 
transmit <to one another, century after century, which 
calls to the unity of God and His glorification and to the 
belief in His apostles and prophets ; which refuses to 
acknowledge associates and equals with God; which 
enjoins the best and highest things and that which is in 
harmony with the rules and the recommendations of the 
prophets ; which warns its adherents against evil and 
evildoers ; and which foretells events, which were realised 
time after time and year after year ; then, when I found 
that the Books of those of the prophets in whom you be- 
lieve had testified to our Prophet and prophesied about 
his empire and his religion as we have already demon- 
strated I embraced such a religion, and hoped for what, 
through it, I shall have with God." 

If you pretend that there is no obligation to acknow- 
ledge the man of such description, prophetic office, merits, 
and evidences, all that you yourself claim will be abolished, 
and with all your belief you will be thrown into unbelief. 
And if you excuse yourself with reference to Dualists 
and Pagans and the like, that they also transmit stories 
from their religious leaders, and relate wonders of their 
messengers and deceivers, and prove the veracity of their 
stories from their own religious books and written his- 
tories we have already spoken of that, at the beginning 
of this book, with such evidence that the only men who 
would close their ears to it would be those whose only 
aim is to quibble and to refrain from serious discussion, 
and whose only religion is obstinacy and arrogance ; 
such false leaders, because they have contradicted them- 
selves and have called men to impurity and aberration, 



1 64 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

have gone astray, and because they have associated other 
gods with I God, have run to perdition. Such men are 
not to be compared with a man whose leader was truth, 
whose aim was true guidance, whose distinctive mark 
was devotion and asceticism, and whose call was to One 
and Unique God, the God of Abraham and of the rest of 
the prophets peace be with them and about whom the 
prophets had prophesied in terms which are now quite 
obvious. 

Waive, therefore, suspicions and excuses, O my cousins 
may God guide you and walk in the safest and most 
direct way, and avoid the most misleading and crooked 
path. If you ponder well, it will become evident to you 
that the motives and reasons for which we have accepted 
the prophetic office of the Prophet peace be with him 
are similar to the motives and the reasons for which you 
have accepted Christ and Moses peace be with both of 
them ; therefore, if we are wrong and exposed to the 
punishment of God, so also are you. Discuss, therefore, 
with your own souls, summon us to the tribunal of your 
mind and intelligence, and argue for us and for your- 
selves, against us and against yourselves, in order that the 
veil may be withdrawn from you ;-you will then, by the 
assistance of God, see the truth itself. 

If somebody blames the Prophet peace be with him 
and says that he peace be with him attributed evil to 
God, the answer is that he has pronounced clear state- 
ments about the justice, mercy, and might of God ; and 
these we have mentioned at the beginning of this book. 
And God may He be blessed and exalted said to Moses 
peace be with him "I will harden Pharaoh's heart, 
that he should not bring you out of the land of Egypt. " 1 
And the prophet Isaiah peace be with him said : " God 
hath made peace, and hath created both good and evil/' 2 
And Paul, who has the precedence among the Christians 
and whom they obey, said in his Epistle to Timothy : 
1 Exod. vii. 3-4. a Isa. xlv. 7. 



CONCLUSION 165 

" In a great house there are not only vessels of silver 
and gold, but also vessels of wood and of earth ; some to 
honour and some to dishonour." 1 He means/by that the 
world, and all the happy and wretched people who are 
in it. 

At the end of this book I will ask you may God 
guide you a general, decisive, and convincing question. 
What would you say of a man coming to this country 
from the regions of India and China, with the intention 
of being rightly guided, of inquiring into the religions 
found in it, and of acquainting himself with the customs 
of its inhabitants? 

It will be said to him that some of its inhabitants 
belong to a religion called Magianism. They worship 
stars and fires, and pretend that God is the creator of 
good and light, and that Satan is the creator of darkness 
and evil; that war is never at rest between them, and 
because they do not obtain their desire, they have neither 
peace nor respite, and are powerless and bewildered ; 
that the will of God and His pleasure are that one should 
have intercourse with one's mother and daughter, purify 
himself with the rotten fluid excretion of cows, and cleave 
to immoral converse and dance ; that the spirits of their 
dead come back to them once a year, partake of the food 
and drink put before them, and at their withdrawal pro- 
vision themselves; 2 and they have some other vicious 
and occult customs similar to those we have mentioned 
at the beginning of this book, with filthy habits, and 
clear signs of vengeance from God on them, and ancient 
prophecies against them, found in the Books of the 
prophets, to which we have referred above. 

Some of its inhabitants belong to a religion called 
Zindikism. Their religion is similar to that of the 
Magians, and it goes even in advance of it in error, per- 
verseness, filth, impurity, and stupidity. 

1 II. Tim. ii. 20. 

2 This information is not without historical interest. 



1 66 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

Some of its inhabitants belong to a religion called 
Christianism. A branch of them pretend that when God 
saw that the power of Satan was becoming supreme and 
its strength formidable, and that the prophets were 
unable to resist him, He found for Himself an eternal and 
everlasting Son, not rivalled by any creature, who entered 
into the womb of a woman, and was born of her ; then 
He grew up and strove with Satan ; but Satan seized 
Him, killed Him, and then crucified Him at the hands of 
a band of his followers, 1 Another branch of them assume 
that the One who was killed was only the temple and the 
habitation of that Son, with whom He had become so 
united that this eternal Son ate the same food as that of 
the created, went to the place of easement with Him, and 
was killed with Him. 2 

Some of its inhabitants belong to a religion called 
Judaism. They have in their hands Books of some men 
whom they call prophets, and relate how these prophets 
have cursed them, and report that God has completely 
forsaken them, execrated their religion, scattered them in 
all regions, extinguished their light, and sworn that He 
will never pity them again. 

Some of its inhabitants belong /to this pure and sub- 
lime religion called Islam. They say that God is One, 
Eternal, who has no partner with Him, and whom no one 
can overcome, because to Him belong omnipotence and 
everlastingness. He has no child and no father, and He 
is the Compassionate, the Merciful, the First, and the 
Last. Their Prophet has prescribed, on behalf of God, 
piety to parents, fasting, prayer, purity, and cleanliness ; 
has made lawful for them the good things, and forbidden 
the evil things, and has promised heaven, and warned 
against Fire. 

In which of these religions and creeds would that 
Indian or that Chinese wish to believe, and to which of 

1 Allusion to the Jacobites. 2 Allusion to the Nestorians. 



CONCLUSION 167 

them would he incline, and of which of them would he 
approve, if he were a man of broad mind, sound judg- 
ment, and an enquirer after mere truth and nothing else ? 

And what would be the argument of God against any 
one of His servants who would say to Him, Just and 
Compassionate as He is, who does not wrong anybody 
by the weight of an atom : l 

41 I heard a preacher call to Thy Unity, magnify Thee, 
praise Thee, and glorify Thee ; and I responded to him. 
I heard 2 him order us to believe in Thy prophets and in 
Thy Chosen Ones, and prescribe prayer, fasting, and 
alms ; and I obeyed him, in the hope of the reward 
which I shall have with Thee, and in obedience to Thy 
order. I heard him urge us to go on pilgrimage to a far 
and remote country ; and I made this pilgrimage, and 
did not hesitate. I heard him exhort us to wage war 
against Thy enemies who disbelieve in Thee, and do not 
pray to Thee ; and I prayed to Thee and fought a holy 
war, with all my might and not half-heartedly, wishing 
in all things to please Thee. I saw disgraceful and 
occult religions and creeds such as those I have men- 
tioned above and I cast them aside, left them completely, 
and held to what I thought was the most solid handle, 
and the best way to please Thee. O my God, if I have 
mistaken what I have chosen, and have erred in what I 
have selected, Thou hast the strongest reason to pity 
Thy servant who exerted his utmost in the search of 
what is with Thee, but mistook the way to come to 
Thee." 

O my cousins, this is an acceptable saying, and not a 
despicable excuse, even with the imperfect and exacting 
servants of God ; how much more so then with the 
Most Compassionate of the merciful, and the most equit- 
able judge who does not require of a soul more than its 
capacity ? 

1 Cf. Kur. iv. 44, etc. 3 Lit. " I saw ". 



168 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 

Examine then may God guide you these argu- 
ments and illustrations, throw away mischievous pre- 
judices, and remove the veil from your eyes and the 
covers and the locks from your hearts ; content your- 
selves, in the chapters that I have written, either with 
the one which deals with the prophetic office, or with 
the one concerning the stories related of the Prophet 
peace be with him or with the one relating to the re- 
splendent victory won in the name of the God of Abra- 
ham ; or with the one on the living Book of the Kur'an 
and its merits, which I have set forth above ; or with the 
one on the successive prophecies of the prophets, and 
the meanings and interpretations that I have given to 
them. Listen to my advice, because I have sifted for 
you my admonitions, and know that I have sought in 
what I have written neither vain glory nor distinction, 
but only what is with God who does not disappoint the 
man who trusts in Him, and in compliance with the 
wish of His Caliph and servant Ja'far al-Mutawakkil 
4 ala Allah, the Commander of the Faithful may God 
strengthen him. 

I expect gratitude and ask for consideration from 
pious and magnanimous Muslims, and also from the more 
intelligent and able men among the members of the pro- 
tected cults, since I have demonstrated to the common 
people among them what I have thoroughly investigated, 
and disclosed to them what I know with certitude, and 
made them understand what I had myself understood, 
intending by that that they should participate in the 
light brought to me, and in the final success for which I 
hope. In case I am right in what I have said my merit 
and my success should redound on me and on them, and 
in case I am wrong the blame should be laid on me to the 
exclusion of them. I crave the continuation of Divine 
protection and assistance, and I take refuge with God 
from my want of requisite knowledge, in beseeching 
Him to remove scandal, and to grant me the garment of 



CONCLUSION 169 

modesty and righteousness, and the attainment of what 
sooner or later I hoped from Him, in what I have written 
and said. 

This my book, which I have entitled Book of Religion 
and Empire, 1 has decisively demonstrated the unsound- 
ness and fallacy of Judaism, the villainy and falseness of 
Dualism and Atheism, 2 and the onlooker already ob- 
serves their downfall and their eclipse, and sees that 
resplendent light and true faith are exclusively in Islam. 

I first thank God for His guidance to me, then His 
servant and Caliph Ja'far al-Mutawakkil 'ala Allah, Com- 
mander of the Faithful may God prolong his life who 
invited and attracted me to him, along with other people 
of the protected cults, by persuasion and dissuasion, and 
by the respect and consideration that he has for all. It 
is for this reason that I devoted the first chapter of this 
book to a description of what my community has ex- 
perienced from his munificence, from the tokens of his 
mercy, the gentleness of his administration, the pros- 
perity of his reign, and the great number of his conquests, 
and to show the obligation of Muslims and non-Muslims 
alike to love him, to obey him, and to be grateful to him. 

Peace be with those who follow true guidance, who 
befriend piety, who love righteousness and virtue, who 
seek partisans for them, and who exhort to them ! 

1 Kitab ud-Din wcfd-Daulah. 

3 More especially the doctrine of the eternity of matter. 



THE END. 



INDEX. 



A. 

'Abbas, 47, 48, 126. 
* Abbas (Abu), 45, 46. 
'Abbas (ibn), 33. 
'Abbasid, 45-46, 126, 137-138. 
'Abdallah (Ansari), 35. 
'Abdallah (b. 'Abbas), 47. 
'Abdallah (b. <Umar), 70, 72. 
Abraham, 2, 20, 58, 77, 79, 80, 8 1, 

90, 97, 102, 115, 130, 144, 153, 
164, 1 68. 

Abtahi, 54. 

Abyssinia, 82. 

Abyssinians, 39, 106. 

'Ad, 72. 

Adam, 7, 22, 130. 

'Adi, 13, 48, 49- 

Agabus, 1 8. 

Ahmad, 42, 99, 108, in. 

Ahwaz, 67, 126. 

'Ai, 154. 

Ajnadain, 48. 

Alexander, 7, 58, 126. 

'Ali, 25, 43, 44, 66, 69. 

'AH (the author), i,cf. 19, 50, 147, 169. 

Aminah, 32. 

'Ammar, 43. 

Anas, 32, 34, 35, 44. 

Andrew, 148. 

'Ansi (the liar), 47. 

Antioch, 18. 

Arab, 3, 34, 41, 49, 5, 57, 84, 87, 

91, 98, 113, 114, u6, 125, 127, 
137, 144, 157, 162. 

Arabia, 99, 103, 544. 

Arabic, 105, 121, 122, 130, 142. 

Ardashir, 58. 

Armenians, 156. 

'As, 31. 

Ashimun, 104. 

Aswad (b. Muttalib), 31. 

Aswad (b. 'Abd Yaghuth), 31. 

Atheists, 58, 169. 

'Ayeshah, 25, 43, 55. 



B. 

Babylon, 96, 97, 126, 127, 129, 137. 

Badr, 32. 

Baghdad, cf. 114, 127. 

Bahram, 84. 

Bakr (Abu), 30, 33, 42, 45, 49, 61-64 

Barkah, 101. 

Barnabas, 18. 

Bashan, 93. 

Basrah, 13, 43, 73. 

Beersheba, 79. 

Berbers, 114. 

Bishtasaf, 10. 

Buddhists, 7, 8. 

C. 

Caesar, 46, 113. 

Chaldaeans, 127. 

China, 165. 

Chinese, 7, 166. 

Chosrau, 46, 49, 65, 67, 100, 113. 

Christ, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,25,36, 
5i, 55, 59, 74, 75, 77, 83, 86, 96, 
106, 130, 136, 137, 139, 140-1431 
145, 147-152, 156-157, 158-160, 
161, 162, 164. 

Christian, 11, 12, 15, 17, 18, 28, 36, 
50, 51, 57, 75, 76, 80, 81, 106, 
120, 124, 130, 137, 139, 144, I45> 
151, 153, 156, 159, 161, 164. 

Christianism, u, 82, 106. 

Copt, 81. 

Cyrene, 18. 

D. 

Damascus, 66, 126. 

Daniel, 16, I33-I39> *42, 146, 153, 

161. 
David, 16, 28, 54, 55, 86, 88-92, 93, 

115, 127, 131, 154, 161. 
Dualism, u, 123, 169. 
Dualists, 58, 163. 
Dumat (Jandal), 39. 
Duranim, 97. 



(171) 



172 



BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 



E. 

Edom, 115. 

Egypt, 50, 53, 76, 81, 82, 155, 164. 

Egyptian, 54, 155. 

Elam, 95, 125, 126, 127. 

Elisha, 1 6. 

Ephah, no. 

Euphrates, 90. 

Eve,?- 

Ezekiel, 17, 53, 128-129, 133, 147. 

F. 

Fakhir, 13. 
Fatimah, 25, 42, 44- 
Franks, 1 56. 

G. 

Gabriel, 2, 26, 31, 80. 
Galatians, 144. 
Galilee, 148. 
Ghifar (banu), 33. 
Gihon, 90. 
Gorlyah, 84. 
Greek (language), 121. 
Greek, 7, 48, 50, 54, 9*1 9&, 121, 
156, 162. 

H. 

Habakkuk, 119, 131. 

Hagar, 77, 78, 79, 80, 83, 105, 106, 

107, 108, 109, 113, 114, 130, 144, 

146. 

Haggai, 17. 
Hamid, 89. 
Hannah, 17, 161. 
Harith, 32. 
Harithiyah, 45. 
Hasan, 44, 66. 
Hashimites, 73. 
Haw'ab, 43. 

Hebrew (language), 98, 121. 
Hebrew (Jew), 162. 
Helpers, 48, 85, 147. 
Hijaz, 82, joi, 103, 114. 
Hims, 71. 
Hlrah, 45, 48. 
Hormiz, 12. 
Hormizan, 67. 
Hosea, 17, 53, "7. 



I. 

Ifrikiyah, 101. 

'Ikrimah, 48. 

India, 8, 82, 114, 122, 165. 

Indian, 7, 8, 50, 54, 166. 

'Irak, 13, 72, 101, 126, 127, 147, 162. 

Iran-Shahr, 122. 

Isaac, 2, 20, 58, 8 1, 97. 

Isaiah, 16, 51, 53, 91, 93-1 16, "7, 

124, 130, 131, 153,164. 
Ishmael, 2, 14, 20, 58, 77-84, 85, 87, 

92, 94, 95, !02, no, 115, 137, 

144, 145, 146. 
Islam, i, 3, 4, ", 18, 19, 46, 47, 49, 

59, 62, 74, 102, 124, 142, 147, 

157, 162, 166, 169. 
Israel, 28, 29, 51, 53, 83, 85, 86, 96, 

102, 103, 108, III, 112, 113, 120, 
124,125, 130, 136, 137, 145, 147, 

149, 155, 160. 
Israelites, 52, 86, 155. 

J. 

Jabir (Ansari), 35. 

Jacob, 2, 20, 58. 

Jacobites, 157. 

Jam (the King), 7. 

James, 148. 

Jazlrah, 153, 162. 

Jeremiah, 16, 51, 124-127. 

Jerusalem, 18, 53, 118, 129, 137, 144- 

Jesus, 2, 28, 30, 106, 142, 158. 

Jew, 12, 28, 52, 53, 59, 76, 81, 86, 

124, 128, 129, 130, 142, 143, MS, 

149, 150-151, 158, 159. 
Jewish, 52, 78. 

John, 140, 141, 142, 148, 157. 
John (son of Zacharias), 117, 150. 
Jonas, 149. 
Joshua, 86, 1 54. 

Judaism, 82, 150, 159, 166, 169. 
Judas, 1 8. 

K. 

Kahtan, 13. 
Kalwadha, 127. 
Karun, 72. 
Kasim (Abu), 62. 
Kedar, 92, no. 



INDEX 



173 



Khalid (b. Walld), 39. I 

Khazar, 82, 122. 

Khurasan, 45, 147. 

Khuzistan, 97. 

Kufah, 73- 

Kumis, 13. 

uraish, 38, 47. 

Kur'an, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 27, 28, 
29, 30, 3i, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 50- 
56, 73, 94, ioi, 125, 140, 168. 

Kush, 121. 

L. 

Lahab, 31. 

Lebanon, 90, 93, 99, in. 

Lucius, 1 8. 

Luke, 18, 55, 143, *57- 

M. 

Maccah, 33, 34, 39, 73, 87, 90, 107' 
109, no, H2, 113, H4, 115, 116, 
118, 129, 142, 144, 146. 

Magians, 7, 8, 10, 11, 165. 

Magianism, n, 165. 

Mahmud, 88, 89, 90, 103, 105, 108. 

Malachi, 17. 

Malik, 33, 34, 44- 

Manael, 18. 

Mani, 11, 12. 

Marcus, 78, 95, 98. 

Mary, 77, 80, 142. 

Matthew, 55, 148-151, 161. 

Media, 95, 97, 13?. 

Melchites, 157. 

Micah, 1 1 8. 

Midian, 94, no, 1 19. 

Miriam, 17. 

Moses, 2, 1 6, 17, 28, 29, 30, 52, 55, 

74, 75, 76, 77-87, 119, 137, 149, 

158-159, 161, 162, 164. 
Mshabbha, 130-131. 
Mu'awiah, 13, 43, 70. 
Muhammad, i, 26, 39, 42, 75, 76, 79, 

86, 88, 90, 92, 98, 102, 103, 105, 

108, 1 10, 115, 119, 130-132, 134. 
Mumajjad, 130-132. 
Musabbab, 130-132. 
Musailamah, 1 1 . 
Muslim (Abu), 45. 
Muslim (adj.), 19, 25, 38, 44, 47, 48, 

55,73, no, 143- 



Muslim (subs.), 3, 31, 33, 36, 41, 47, 
49, 57, 58, 62, 63, 66, 71, 72, 75, 
76, 95, 106, 117, 125, 145, 152, 
153, 154, 155, i5 6 , 1 68, 169. 

Mutawakkil, 4, 19, 152, 168, 169. 

N. 

Nabatia, 97. 
Nahum, 17. 
Najashi, 39. 
Nebaioth, no. 
Nebuchadnezzar, 133. 
Nestorians, 157. 
Noah, 22. 



P. 



Pagans, 58, 163. 

Paraclet, 140-141. 

Paran (mount), 80, 86, 87, 119, 144. 

Paul, 18, 55,1,13, M4-I45, I53> l6 , 

164. 

Persia, 91, 97, 126. 
Persian (language), 121, cf. 84. 
Persian, 47, 5, 54, 84, 98, 126, 127, 

137, 162. 
Pharaoh, 81, ioi, 155, 164. 
Philip, 1 8. 
Philistia, 154. 
Phiruz, 46, 47. 
Pilate, 150. 
Pi son, 90. 
Protected cults (dhimmis\ mainly 

58 and 154-155. 

R. 

Rabi' (b. Khaitham), 72. 
Refugees, 147. 
Romans, 150. 

S. 

Sabeans, 7. 

Sa'd (b. 'Ubadah), 38, 39. 

Samuel, 154, 161. 

Sarah, 78, 79, 83, 106, 130. 

Satan, 12, 55, 59, 60, 165, 166. 

Saul (Paul), 130. 

Saul, 1 8. 

Sawad, 126. 

Seba, 89. 



174 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE 



Stir, 86, 144- 
Sheba, 89, no. 
Silas, 1 8. 
Simon, 18. 



U. 



Ukaidir, 39. 

'Ukkashah, 32. 
Simon (Cephas), 55, 75, 83, 130, 'Umar, 33, 42, 45, 47, 62, 63, 65. 

142, 143, M 68 - 

Sinai, 86, 144. 
Sind, 46, 114. 
Sinim, 1 12. 
Solomon, 55. 
Syria, 73, 76, 82, 101, 121, 126, 144, 

154, 162. 
Syriac, 87, 103, 116, 121, 129, 130, 

Walid (b. Mughirah), 31. 

Walld (b. Yazld), 70. 

War (Holy, 7/7/5*0, 23, 49, 57, M3, 



Syrian, 87, 95, 129, 154. 
Sudan, 121. 
Sufyan (Abu), 34. 
Sus, 58, 82. 



T. 

Tababi'ah, 7, 126. 
Tabari (the author), I. 
Tabaristdn, 84. 
Tarshish, 89, 93, in. 
Thamud, 72. 
Tibet, 58. 
Tigris, 90, 100. 
Timothy, 164 
Tradition, 17, 42, 46, 162. 
Trinity, 123, 159, etc. 
Tubba', 126. 
Turanians, 156. 
Turkestan, 58, 82. 
Turks, 106, 122, 157. 



'Umar (b. Abd al-'Aziz), 70-72. 
Umayyads, 46, 70, 126. 
'Uthman, 33, 42, 43, 45- 



W. 



153-157, 167. 



Y. 

Ya'la (b. Umayyah), 35. 
Yaman, 46, 47, 90, 101, no. 
Yazld, 70. 

Z. 

Zakkar (Abu), 147, 148, 152. 
Zechariah, 123. 
Zephaniah, 121, 123. 
Zindikism, 165. 
Zindiks, 7, 10, 51. 
Zion, 53, 116. 
Zoroaster, 10, 12. 
Zubair, 43. 



ABERDEEN : THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF 

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

CATALOGUES, HAND-LISTS, DESCRIPTIVE NOTES AND 
TRANSLATIONS OF, OR RELATING TO, MANUSCRIPTS 
IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. 

CATALOGUE OF THE DEMOTIC PAPYRI IN THE JOHN RYLANDS 
LIBRARY. With facsimiles and complete translations. By F. LI. Griffith M.A. 1909. 
3 vols. 4to. 5 guineas net. 

Vol. I : Atlas of facsimiles in collotype. Vol. 2 : Lithographed hand copies of the 
earlier documents. Vol. 3 : Key-list, translations, commentaries, and indexes. 

\* This is something more than a catalogue, since it includes collotype facsimiles of the whole 
of the documents, with transliterations, translations, valuable introductions, very full notes, and a 
glossary of Demotic, representing, in the estimation of scholars, the most important contribution to 
die study of Demotic hitherto published. 

CATALOGUE OF THE COPTIC MANUSCRIPTS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS 
LIBRARY. By W. E. Crum M.A. 1909. 4to, pp. xii, 273. 1 2 plates of facsimiles, io 
collotype. 1 guinea net. 

*/ The collection includes a series of private letters considerably older than any in Coptic 
hitherto known, in addition to many manuscripts of great theological and historical interest. Many 
of the texts are reproduced in extenso. 

NEW COPTIC MANUSCRIPTS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. By 
W. E. Crum. 1920. 8vo, pp. 7. Is. net. 

%* Descriptive notes of a few Coptic pieces on papyrus and vellum which have been acquired 
since the publication of the aforementioned catalogue in 1909. 

CATALOGUE OF THE GREEK PAPYRI IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. 
By Arthur S. Hunt, M.A., Litt.D., J. de M. Johnson, M.A., and Victor Martin, D. es L 
Vol. 1: Literary texts (Nos, 1-61). 1911. 4to, pp. xii, 204. 10 plates of facsimiles in 
collotype. Vol. 2 : Documents of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods (Nos. 62-456). 1916. 
4to, pp. xx, 488. 23 plates in collotype. Each volume I guinea net. 

\* The texts are reproduced in extenso, and comprise many interesting Biblical, liturgical, 
classical papyri, and non-literary documents of an official or legal character ranging from the third 
century B.C. to the sixth century A.D. 

CATALOGUE OF THE LATIN MANUSCRIPTS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS 
LIBRARY. Nos. 1-183. By Montague Rhodes James, Litt.D., etc. 2 vols. 4to. 
187 plates of facsimiles. 4 guineas net. 

Vol. 1 : Descriptive catalogue, with indexes of contents, place names, proper names, 
saints, illustrations, etc. Pp. xvi, 328. 

Vol. 2 : Facsimiles in collotype. 

V The collection here described includes examples, of first-class quality, of the art and calli- 
graphy of most of the great writing schools of Europe. 



HAND-LIST OF ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTION OF LATIN MANU- 
SCRIPS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY, 1908-1920 (No*. 184-332). 
By R. Fawtier, D. es L 1921. 8vo, pp. 21. Is. net. 

** The MSS. dealt with in this temporary hand-list represent the additions, to the number 
of 149, to the Latin section of the Western MSS., which were acquired for the library between 
the years 1908 and 1920. They include several very important service books, cartularies, ward- 
robe books, and other interesting historical and theological items. 

HAND-LIST OF THE MAINWAR1NG AND JODRELL MANUSCRIPTS, at 
present in the custody of the John Rylands Library. By R. Fawtier, D. es L. 8vo, pp. 48. 
2s. net. 

** The collections dealt with have been deposited in the library, on loan, for safe custody, 
and include a number of interesting early charters (many of which date back to the time of Edward 
I.), diaries, household books, literary papers, and other deeds and evidences relating to the Cheshire 
estates and families of Mainwaring, who have been seated in Cheshire ever since the Conquest, and 
of Jodrell, who have been seated there certainly since 1357. 

HAND-LIST OF THE SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS 
LIBRARY. By A. Mingana, D.D. 1922. 8vo, 2s. net. [Nearly ready. 

** The collection is not a large one, but it includes a number of interesting works of per- 
manent value, notably : a copy of Gannath Bus same, the unpublished repertory of East Syrian 
exegesis ; chapters from the first work ever written on monasticism by Gregory of Cyprus ; the 
Capita of Nestorius ; an unique lexicographical treatise ; two treatises dealing with India, one by 
an eye-witness describing the landing of the Portuguese, and their successive misfortunes and final 
success ; a transcript of the oldest extant text of the liturgical prayers of the Nestorians, written in 
China, etc. The hand-list contains many descriptive notes. 

SUMERIAN TABLETS FROM UMMA IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. 
. . . Transcribed, transliterated, and translated by C. L. Bedale, M.A. . . . With a Fore- 
word by Canon C. H. W. Johns, M.A., Litt.D .1915. 4to, pp. xvi, 16, with ten facsimiles. 
5s. net. 

**This thin quarto consists of a description lof fifty-eight tablets,! forming part of the collec- 
tion recently acquired by the library. 

BRIEF NOTES ON SOME OF THE RARER OR UNIQUE ARABIC AND 
PERSIAN-ARABIC MANUSCRIPTS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. 
By A. Mingana, D.D. 1922. 8vo, pp. 9. h. net. 

* * The object of these notes is to direct attention to works of importance in the particular 
field of research to which they belong, the very existence of which would otherwise remain unknown 
until the full catalogue, which is in preparation, is published ; since the whole of the items dealt 
with are either unique or of such rare occurrence as to render them almost so. 

AN IMPORTANT OLD TURKI MANUSCRIPT IN THE JOHN RYLANDS 
LIBRARY. By A. Mingana, D.D. 1915. 8vo, pp. 12, with two facsimiles. Is. net. 

%*The MS. referred to is a trilingual copy of the Kurfin in fourteen volumes. The 
languages, which are interlinear, are Arabic, Persian, nnd Old Turki. 

"FILIA MAGISTRI " : un abrege des sentences de Pierre Lombard.**' Notes sur un manuscrit 
latin conserve a la Bibliotheque John Rylands. By Raymond M. Martin, O.P. 1915. 
8vo, pp. 12. Is. net. 

SOME EARLY JUD/EO-CHRIST1AN DOCUMENTS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS 
LIBRARY. I. A new life of Clement of Rome ; 2. The Book of Shem, Son of Noah ; 
3. Fragment from the Philosopher Andronicus and Asaph, the Historian of the Jews. Syriac 
Texts edited with translations by A. Mingana, D.D. 1917. 8vo, pp. 62. ' ^Boards, 2s. net 



THE BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE. A semi-official defence and exposition of 
Islam, written by. order at the Court and with the assistance of the Caliph Mutawakkit 
(A.D. 847-861). By AH Tabari. Translated with a critical apparatus from an apparently 
unique MS. in the John Rylands Library by A. Mingana, D.D. 8vo, pp. xxiv, 174. Cloth, 
I On, 6d. net. 

\* Hitherto, as far as we have been able to ascertain, no such apology of Islam, of so early a 
date, and of such outstanding importance, by a learned Muhammadan doctor, has been known to 
exist. The work is of first-rate importance to the Muslim, and not of less importance to every 
oriental scholar, whilst to those interested in theological questions it cannot fail to be of interest. It 
follows generally the " Apology of the Christian Faith " of Al Kindi, which the author probably 
intended Jo refute. It contains about 130 long Biblical quotations to prove the divine mission 
of the prophet, which follow the Syriac version of the Bible, said in the MS. to have been trans- 
lated by " Marcus the Interpreter," who may probably be identified with " Mark the Evangelist," 
who is credited by a Syriac authority with having made a translation of the Old Testament into 
Aramaic or Syriac. 



CATALOGUES OF PRINTED BOOKS IN THE JOHN 
RYLANDS LIBRARY. 



CATALOGUE OF THE PRINTED BOOKS AND MANUSCRIPTS IN THE 
JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. 1899. 3 pis. 4to, cloth. 31s.6d.net. 

%* A brief-title author catalogue of the printed books, including the Althorp collection, and 
the few manuscripts with which the library shelves were equipped at the time of its inauguration. 



CATALOGUE OF BOOKS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY PRINTED 
IN ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, AND IRELAND, and of Books in English printed 
abroad to the end of the Year 1640. 1895. 4to, PP . iii, 147. Cloth, I Os. 6d. net. 

V A brief-title author catalogue, with an index of printers, under which is a chronological 
list of books printed by them. 



THE ENGLISH BIBLE IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY, 1525 to 1640. By 
Richard Lovett. 1899. Fol, pp. xvi, 275, with twenty-six facsimiles in collotype, and 
thirty-nine engravings. Bound in full morocco. 5 guineas. 

\* Of this sumptuous volume only 100 copies were printed for private circulation by Mrs. 
Rylands. Very few copies remain. 



A CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE OF THE WORKS ON ARCHITECTURE AND 
THE ALLIED ARTS IN THE PRINCIPAL LIBRARIES OF MANCHESTER 
AND SALFORD, with alphabetical author list and subject index. Edited for the Archi- 
tectural Committee of Manchester by Henry Guppy, M.A., and Guthnc Vine, M.A. 1909. 
8vo, pp. xxv, 310. 3s. 6d. net, or interleaved 4s. 6d. rut. 

V Jbii catalogue is the first of its kind to be issued, with the exception of a few union lists 
of periodicals and incunabula, 



THE JOHN RYLANDS FACSIMILES. 

A series of reproductions of some of the more interesting and important of the rarer books in 
the possession of the library. The volumes consist of minutely accurate facsimiles of the works 
selected, preceded by bibliographical introductions. 

PROPOSITIO JpHANNIS RUSSELL, printed by William Caxton, circa A.D. 1476. 
. . . With an introduction by Henry Guppy, M.A. 1909. 8vo, pp. 36, 8. 3s. 6d. net. 

%* An oration, pronounced by John Russell, Chancellor of England, on the investiture of 
Charles, Dukeof Burgundy, with the Order of the Garter, in February, 1 469, at Ghent. For many 
years the copy now in the John Rylands Library was considered to be unique. Until 1807 it lay 
buried and unnoticed in the heart of a volume of manuscripts, with which it had evidently been 
bound up by mistake. Since then, another copy has been discovered in the library at Holkam Hall, 
the seat of the Earl of Leicester. 

A BOOKE IN ENGLYSH METRE, of the Great Marchaunt man called "Dives Prag- 
maticus". . . . 1563. . . . With an introduction by Percy E. Newbery, M.A. ; and remarks 
on the vocabulary and dialect with a glossary by Henry C. Wyld, M.A. 1910, 4to, pp. 
xxxviii, 16. 5s. net. 

%* The tract here reproduced is believed to be the sole surviving copy of a quaint little primer 
which had the laudable object of instructing the young in the names of trades, professions, ranks, 
and common objects of daily life in their own tongue. 



A LITIL BOKE the whiche traytied and reherced many gode thmges necessaries for the ... 
Pestilence . . . made by the ... Bisshop of Arusiens. . . . [London], [1485 ?]. . . . 
With an introduction by Guthrie Vine, M.A. 1910. 4to, pp. xxxvi, 18. 5s. net. 

%* Of this little tract, consisting of nine leaves, written by Benedict Kanuti, or Knutsson, 
Bishop of Vasteras, three separate editions are known, but only one copy of each, and an odd leaf 
are known to have survived. There is no indication in any edition of the place of printing, dale or 
name of printer, but they are all printed in one of the five types employed by William de Machlinia, 
who printed first in partnership with John Lettou and aftei wards alone in the City of London, at the 
time when William Caxton was at the most active period of his career at Westminster. 



WOODCUTS OF THE FIFFEENTH CENTURY IN THE JOHN RYLANDS 
LIBRARY. Reproduced in facsimile. With an introduction and descriptive notes by 
Campbell Dodgson, M.A. Folio. Ten plates, of which two are in colour, and 16 pp. of 
text, in a portfolio. 7s. 6d. t^t. 

* 9 * Two of these woodcuts are of exceptional interest and importance, and have been known 
and celebrated for a century and a half, but have not hitherto been reproduced in a satisfactory 
manner by any of the modern photo-mechanical processes. The two woodcuts referred to represent 
" St. Christopher " and " The Annunciation," the former of which has acquired a great celebrity 
by reason of the date (1423) which it bears, and which, until recently, gave to it the unchallenged 
position of the first dated woodcut. 



THE ODES AND PSALMS OF SOLOMON. Facsimile in collotype of the original Syriac 
manuscript in the John Rylands Library, accompanied by a typographical reprint or trans- 
literation of the text, a revised translation in English Versicles, and an exhaustive introduction 
dealing with the variations of the fragmentary manuscripts in the British Museum, the accessory 
patristic testimonies, and a summary of the most important criticisms that have appeared since 
its first publication in 1909. By J. Rendel Harris, M.A., D.Litt., etc., Hon. Fellow of Clare 
College, Cambridge, and Alphonse Mingana, D.D. 2 vols. 4to. 

Vol. ! : The text, with facsimile reproductions. I Os. 6d. nc.t. 
Vol. 2 : Translation and introduction. I guinea net. 



MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC 'AT10NS. 

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY: A Brief Record of Twenty-one Years' Work 
(MCM-January MCMXXI). By Henry Guppy, M.A. 8vo, pp. xiv, 58, with forty-three 
views and facsimiles. One Shilling net. 

*.* This was written to commemorate the library's coming of age. 



A BRIEF HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE JOHN RYLANDS 

and its Contents. By Henry Guppy, M.A. 1914. 8vo, pp. xvi, 73, with thirty-seven 
views and facsimiles. One shilling net. 

AN ANALYTICAL CATALOGUE OF THE CONTENTS OF THE TWO EDI- 
TIONS OF "AN ENGLISH GARNER," compiled by Edward Arber (1877-97), and 
rearranged under the editorship of Thomas Seccombe (1903-04). Edited by Henry Guppy, 
M.A. 1909. 8vo, pp. vi.i, 221. One Shilling net. 

THE ASCENT OF OLYMPUS. By J. Rendel Han is, M.A., D.Litt., etc. Demy 8vo, 
pp. 140. 20 Illustrations. 5s. net. 

%* A leprint, with corrections, expansions, justifications, and additional illustrations, of the 
four articles on Greek Mythology, Aphiodite, Apollo, Artemis, and Dionysos, which have appeared 
in the '* Bulletin " from time to time. 

THE EVOLUTION OF THE DRAGON. By G. Elhot Smith, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., 
etc. 1919. Demy 8vo, pp. xx, 234, with 26 plates and many illustrations in the text. Cloth. 
IOs. 6d. net. 

* f * An elaboration of three lectures delivered in the John Rylands Library on " Incense and 
Libations," *' Dragons and Ram Gods," and "The Birth of Aphrodite". 

AILRED OF RIEVAULX AND HIS BIOGRAPHER, WALTER DANIEL. By 
F. M. Powicke, M.A., Litt.D. 1922. 8vo, pp. vi, 1 12, with facsimile. 3s. 6d. net. 

%* Compiled, tianslated, and edited from a twelfth century MS. recently acquired by the John 
Rylands Libiaiy, nnd another MS. in Jesus College, Cambridge. 

THE BULLETIN OF I HE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. Edited by the Librarian. 

It appears twice each year, in the months of Januaiy and July. The numbers usually run to 
about 1 50 pages, and are often illustrated with facsimiles and other pictorial matter. 2s. n-c-t each 

It is. now in its seventh volume, but all the preceding volumes (except the first) are still pro- 
curable as follows : Vols. 2, 1914-1 5 (4 parts), 4s. wt ; 3, 1916-17 (4 parts), 4s. net ; 4, 1917- 
18 (4 part,), 4,. net , 5, 1918-20 (5 parts), 6s. net ; 6, 1921-22 (4 parts), 8s. net. 

%* This publication was commenced in 1903, with the object of providing a medium of com- 
munication between the hbraiy, its readers and others who might be interested in its work, and 
at the same time of icveahng to students and loveis of literature the opportunities for research which 
such a libraiy holds out. 

It was continued by annual issues until 1908, when by reason of the exigencies of other work 
it was found nccessaiy to suspend publication. 

In Octobei, 1914, publication was resumed in icsponse to repeated inquiries, which seemed to 
reveal the need for some such link between the hbraiy and those in various parts, of the woild who 
were interested in its operations. 

Such was the enthusiastic welcome accorded to the "Bulletin" in its levived form, that we 
were encouraged to make an attempt to develop its literary character, and in this we have been 
successful through the assistance of a number of scholars, who have very generously furnished us 
with a regular succession of original articles, the outstanding importance of which may be gathered 
by a glance at the accompanying list of reprints. In this way a place has been assured to it 
amongst the periodicals of a genuine literary standing. 



REPRINTS OF ARTIC L S WHICH APPEARED ORIGIN \LLf 
IN THE "BULLETIN Or T'r'.L ]0tttt ELANDS LIBRARY." 



With scarcely an exception these monographs embody the results of new and original investiga- 
tions by scholars of the highest eminence, who have thereby imparted a fresh stimulus to study in 
their respective fields of research. 

Demy 8vo. One shilling net each, unless otherwise stated. 

CLASSICAL. 

CONWAY (R. S.), Litt.D., F.B.A. The Youth of Vergil. 1915. Pp. 28. 

-- The Philosophy of Vergil. 1 922. Pp. 1 8. 

-- The Venetian Point of View in Roman History. 1917-18. Pp. 22. 

- The Portrait of a Roman Gentleman from Livy. 1922. Pp. 16. 

GRENFELL (B. P.), D.Litt., F.B.A. The Present Position of Papyrology. Pp. 21. 

HARRIS (J. RENDEL), Litt.D., D.Theol., etc. The Origin of the Cult of Aphrodite. 
1916. Pp. 30. With 9 illustrations. 

-- The Origin of the Cult of Appolo. 1916. Pp. 40. With frontispiece and illustrations. 

-- The Origin of the Cult of Artemis. 1916. Pp.39. With illustrations. 

-- The Origin of the Cult of Dionysos. 1915. Pp. 17. With illustrations. 

--- The Origin and Meaning of Apple Cults. 1919. Pp.52. With illustrations. 2s. 

SOUTER (ALEXANDER), M.A., D.Litt. List of Abbreviations and Contractions, etc., 
in the John Rylands Libiary Latin Manuscript, No. 15. 1919. Pp. 7. 

HISTORICAL. 

BRUTON (F. A.), M.A., Litt.D The Story of Peterloo. Written for the centenary, 16th 
August 1919. 8vo, pp. 45. With plates. 2s. 

HARRIS (J. RENDEL), L.tt.D., D.Theol., etc. Three Letters of John Eliot and a Bill of 
Lading of the "Mayflower"'. 1919. Hyo, pp. 11. With frontispiece. 

PERRY (W. J.), B.A. War and Civilisation, 1917-18. 8vo, pp. 27. With 9'Sketch Maps. 

POW1CKE (FREDERICK J.), M.A., Ph.D. Eleven Letters of John, Second Ea.l of 
Lauderdale (and First Duke), 1616-82, to the Rev. Richard Baxter (1615-91). 1922. 
8vo, pp. 33. 

THUMB (A.). The Modern Greek and his Ancestry. 1914, 8vo, pp. 27. 

TOUT (T. F.), M.A., Litt.D., F.B.A. The Captivity and Death of Edward of Carnarvon, 
1920, 8vo,pp. 49. 2s. 

--- The English Civil Service in the Fourteenth Century. 1916. 8vo, pp. 32. 

-- Mediaeval and Modern Warfare. 1919. 8vo, pp. 28. 

-- A Mediaeval Burglary. 1915. 8vo, pp. 24. With illustrations. 

--- Mediaeval Forgers and Forgeries. 1920. 8vo, pp. 31. 

--- Mediaeval Town Planning. 1917. 8vo, pp. 35. With 1 1 illustrations. 2s. 

SMITH (G. ELLIOT), M.A., M.D., F.R.S,, etc. The Influence of Ancient Egyptian Civili- 
sation in the East and in America. 1916. Pp. 32. With 7 illustrations. , 



REPRINTS OF ARTICLES, ETC-c 
LITERARY. 

HERFORD (C. H.), M.A., Lilt.D., etc. Gabriele d'Annunzio. 1920, Pp. 27. 

National and International Ideals in the English Poets. 1916. Pp. 24. 

Norse Myth in English Poetry. 1919. Pp. 31 . 

The Poetry of Lucretius. 1918. Pp. 26. 

Recent Tendencies in European Poetry. 1921. Pp. 27. 

Some Approaches to Religion through Poetry during the past Two Generations. 1922. 

Pp. 33. 

GUPPY (HENRY), MA, D.Phil. A Brief Sketch of the Life and Times of Shakespeare. 

With a Chronological Table of the piincipal Events. 1916. Pp. 30 With frontispiece. 
Dante Alighieri, 1321-1921. An appreciation, in commemoration of the Six-hundredth 

Anniversary of the Poet's Death. Pp. 1 3. With 3 facsimiles. 
POEL (WILLIAM). Prominent Points in the Life and Writings of Shakespeare. Arranged 

in four tables. 1919. 'Pp. 12. 

Some Notes on Shakespeare's Stage and Plays. 1916. Pp. 16. With 3 illustrations. 

THEOLOGICAL. 

BUCKLE (D. P.), M.A. The Forty Martyrs of Sebasle. A Study of Hagiographic Develop-' 

ment. 1921. Pp.9. With 4 facsimiles. 
HARRIS (J. RENDEL), Litt.D., D.Theol., etc. Metrical Fragments in iii. Maccabees. 

1920. Pp. 13. 

Celsus and Aristides. 1921. Pp. 13. 

Marcion's Book of Contradictions. 1 92 1 . Pp. 2 1 . 

Stoic Origins of the Fourth Gospel. 1 922. Pp. 1 3. 

HOSK1ER (H. C.). Manuscripts of the Apocalypse : Recent Investigations. Part 1. 1922. 

Pp. 20. With 5 facsimiles. 
"MINGANA (A.), D.D. Synopsis of Christian Doctrine in the Fourth Century according to 

Theodore of Mopsuestia. 1 920. Pp. 2 1 . 
PEAKE (A. S.), M.A., D.D., etc. The Quintessence of Paulmism. 1917-18. Pp.31. 

The Roots of Hebrew Prophecy and Jewish Apocalyptic. 1923. Pp. 28. 

F he Movement of Old Testament Scholarship in the Nineteenth Century. Synopsis of a 

Lecture in the John Rylands Library on Nov. 1 1, 1903. With some leading Dates in 

Pentateuch Criticism. 1903. Pp. 8. 

Bibliographical Notes for the Study of the Old Testament. 1913. Pp. 7. 

Bibliographical Notes for Students of the New Testament. 1914. Pp. 10. 

POWICKE (FREDERICK J.), M.A., Ph.D. A Puritan Idyll ; or, Richard Baxter's Love 

Story. 1917. Pp.35. 
The Story and Significance of the Rev. Richard Baxter's "Saints' everlasting rest ". 1920. 

Pp. 35. With frontispiece. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

JAMES HOPE MOULTON, 1863-1917. I. A B.ogiaphical Sketch, with some Account of 

his Literary Legacies. By W. Fiddian Mouhon, M.A. 2. A Record of Professor J. H. 

Moult on' s Work, with some explanation of its significance. By A. S. Peake, M.A., D.D. 

3. Letter from Dr. Rendel Harris to the Rev. W. Fiddian Moulton. 1917. Pp. 18. 

With portrait. 
ESEN (L. VAN DER). La Bibliolhcque de 1'Universite' de Louvain. . . . Steps towards 

the reconstruction of the Library of the University of Louvain. [By H. Guppy.) 1915. 

Pp. 16. 
HARRIS (J. RENDEL), Litt.D., D.Theol., etc. The Woodpecker in Human Form. 1920. 

Pp. 17. 

RIVERS (W. H. R.). Dreams and Primitive Culture. 1917-18. Pp.28. 
Mind and Medicine. Second edition. 1920. Pp.23. 



EXHIBITION CATALOGUES. 

CATALOGUE OF THE MANUSCRIPTS, BOOKS, AND BOOK-BIN DINGS 
EXHIBITED AT THE OPENING OF THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY, 
October 6th, 1899. 1899. 8vo, pp. 41. [OiU of print. 

THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY: a brief description of the building and its contents, 
with a descriptive list of the works exhibited in the main library. By Heniy Guppy. 1902. 
8vo, pp. 47. 

CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF BIBLES IN THE JOHN RYLANDS 
LIBRARY, illustrating the history of the English versions from Wiclif to the present time. 
Including the personal copies of Queen Elizabeth, General Gordon, and Elizabeth Fry. 
1904. 8vo, PP . 32. Is. net. 

A BRIEF HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 
AND ITS CON TENTS, with catalogue of the selection of eaily printed Greek and Latin 
classics exhibited on the occasion of the visit of the Classical Association in October MCMVI. 
1906. 8vo, pp. 89. With plates. Is. net. 

CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF BIBLES IN THE JOHN RYLANDS 

LIBRARY, illustrating the history of the English versions from Wiclif to the present time, 
including the personal copies of Queen Elizabeth, Elizabeth Fry, and others. 1907. 8vo, 
pp. vii, 55. With plates. Is. net. 

CATALOGUE OF THE SELECTION OF BOOKS AND BROADSIDES ILLUS- 
TRATING THE EARLY HISTORY OF PRINTING, exhibited in the John 

Ry lands Library on the occasion of the visit of the Federation of Master Printers and Allied 
Trades in June, MCMVII. 1907. 8vo, pp. v, 34. [Out of j.rinf. 

CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS, 
PRINCIPALLY BIBLICAL AND LITURGICAL, exhibited in the John Rylands 
Library on the occasion of the meeting of the Church Congress in October, MCMVI11. 1908. 
8vo, pp. vii, 62. With plates. Is. net. 

CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 
OF THE ORIGINAL EDITIONS OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS OF JOHN 
MILTON, ananged in celebration of the tercentenary of his birth. 1908. 8vo, pp. 24. 
Is. net. 

CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF THE WORKS OF DANTE 
ALIGHIERI, shown m the John Rylands Library from March to October, MCMIX. 
1909. 8vo, pp. xii, 55. Is. net. 

CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF ORIGINAL EDITIONS OF THK 
PRINCIPAL ENGLISH CLASSICS, shown in the John Rylands Library from March 
to October, MCMX. 1910. 8vo, pp. xv, 64. Is. net. 

CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF MANUSCRIPTS AND PRINTED 
COPIES OF THE SCRIPTURES, illustrating the histoiy of the transmission of the 
Bible, shown in the John Rylands Libraiy fiom March to December, MCMXI. Ter- 
centenary of the "Authorised version" of the English Bible: A.D. 1611-1911. 1911. 
8vo, pp. xiv, 128. With plates. [Ont of print. 

CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF MED1/EVAL MANUSCRIPTS AND 

JEWELLED BOOK COVERS, shown in the John Rylands Library from January XII 
to December, MCMXII, including Lists of Palaeographical Works and of Historical 
Periodicals in the John Rylands Library. 1912. 8vo, pp. xiii, 134. With plates. Is. net. 

A BRIEF HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 

AND ITS CONTENTS, with Catalogue of a Selection of Manuscripts and Piinted Books 
exhibited on the occasion of the visit of the Congregational Union of England and Wales in 
October, MCMXII. With illustrations. Edited by Henry Guppy. 1912. 8vo, pp. x, 
143. [Out of print. 

CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY 
OF THE WORKS OF SHAKESPEARE, his sources, and the writings of his 
principal contemporaries. With an introductory sketch by Henry Guppy, and sixteen fac- 
similes. Tercentenary of the death of Shakespeare, April 23rd, V9I6. 1916. Second edition. 
8vo, pp. xvi, 169. \*.net.